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TVTT T.J'"T V'-l-'V 
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IV./ 1 k>>4 

V U 

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A Book of 
RECious Stones 






Vbe itntclierbocfiet Press 



Seirenth Printing 
Eighth Printing 

Priumi to tk§ UmU§4 StaUtofAmmim 


'I'tiK object of the aathor is to gather together 
* in the present volnme information of all 
Borts aboQt precious stones and the minerals 
which form their bases ; it has been his endeavour 
to include all of the many aspects of his sub- 
ject, and, at the same time, to present it in 
such form that it maj serve at once as a guide 
the professional jeweller, a hook of reference 
the amateur, and yet prove of equal interest 
to the general reader. 

The study of gems, in its more obviona as- 
pects, forms a division of mineralogy — or more 
specifically of crystallography — and of the allied 
science, chemistry; but the author has attempted 
to avoid the techni call ties of these subjects and 
prewfff the matter in a popular manner. 

V»>i1« it is true that " gemology " may be 
incladed under mineralogy or chemistry, never- 
theless, 80 varied are the associations with gems, 
iKitt if (his scientific treatment of them were 
.i!iioe attempted, there would be disregarded 

some of the most interesting aspects of the sub- 
ject, which is related not only to art, but to 
history and even mythology as well. 

From all these various standpoints has the 
subject been approached. The precious stones 
are described in chapters devoted to each, in 
the order in which they rank in popular estima- 
tion, as are also the more important semi- 
precious stones, which are classified, those 
occasionally used being briefly treated. Dia- 
mond-cutting, its history and processes, the 
lapidary and his work, imitations and recoQ* 
Btructed gems, myths and legends, favourite 
gems of the great, gems and gem minerals in 
museums, the trade union of the diamond cut- 
ters, and the designing and making of jewelry 
in the new arts and crafts movement, are all 
considered, and further valuable specific in- 
formation is comprehended in appended lists, 
tables, and an extensive bibliography. 

In expressing indebtedness to those who have 
been of assistance to him, the author would first 
cordially thank his friend Mr. Allen S. AVilliams, 
whose scientific knowledge and literary skill 
have been of very great help in preparing this 
volume. Among authorities drawn upon for id* 
formation are Dr. Max Bauer, Professor James 

Preface v 

Dana, Dr. George Frederick Knnz, Profee- 
Oliver Cummings Farrington, Mr. Edwin 
, Streeter, Mr. Gardner F. Williams, Profes- 
~sor Louis P. Gratacap, Mr. Wirt Tassin, and 
Mr. W. R. Cattelle. Thanks for valuable aid 
are also due to Mr. Arthur Chamberlain, editor 
of The Mineral Collector; to the editors of The 
Jeweller's Circular •Weeldp, The Keystone, anil 
The Xational Jeweller; to The Foote Mineral 
Company and Mr. William H. Ran, of Philadel- 
phia; to Mr. John Lamont, to Mr. Albert H. 
Petereit, and Mr. Ludwig Nissen of New York 
City; to Mr. Walter Scott Perry of Brooklyn, 
B^ to the University of California. 
^H The author feels that the experience of more 
^than thirty years as artisan and as manufac- 
turer of jewelry and imjwrter of gems justifies 
^JUm in presenting in book form the information 
^Bbich is constantly sought of those who are 
^Hgarded as authorities upon the subject of 
precious stones. 

J. W. 
, Nnr Yoax, June, 1909. 



Mobs Books Covcxsniho It . . 1 

IL Classificatiokb of Pbscious and 
Pbscious Stones 

UL Thx Diamond 

rV. Emxsalds 

V. The Pxabl . 


VIL ThxSapphibb 

VILL Thx Amxthtst 


X Oabnxt 

XL Thb Opal 

Xn. The Topaz 


XIV. Cat^s-Etb 







• • • 



XVL Jade 143 

XVTL Moonstone 147 

XVm. Peridot 151 



XXL Ambeb 169 

XXTT, Bloodstone 173 

XXTTT, MossAoATE 176 

XXrV. Onyx and Sardontx . . . ,179 

XXV. Semi-Precious Stones Occasionally 

Used 183 

XXYL CuTTiNO Diamonds and Othes Gems 195 

XXvil. Imitations, Impsoybments, and Re- 
construction 209 

XXVm Folk-lore 228 

XXIX Fayourite Gems of Distinguished 

People 239 

XXX. Gem Minerals and Gems in Museum 

Collections 245 

XXXI. Our Diamond Cutters and their 

Trade Union .... 253 

XXXn. Jewelry in the Arts and Crafts 

Moyement 262 



Alphabetical List of Gem Minerati . . . S85 

List of Important Gems According to Colonre 392 
Dicliroism — A List of Leading Twin-Coloured 

Qemi 294 

The Mohfl Table of Hardness . . . .295 

Table of Hardness of Gem Minerals . . 296 
Table Showing SpeciSo Gravity of Gem 

Miner&lB -297 

Befnetion 298 

Tnnapuenoyof GemiiinderR6ntgen(X-)Rayfl 300 

A Ckrat'a Weight in Yarioas Localities . . 301 

CrystAllograpby — Systems of Crystalline Fonn 303 
"Birth-Stones": A Rhyming List of Natal 

Gems Popnlarly Identified with the Months 303 

_ Others Books about Gems (Bibliography) . 307 


Kmberl^, South Africa, Diamond Mines: Open 
workings .28 

Kaffir employees gambting in the compound, 
Kimberley Mines ..... 30 

On the floors loading blue earth for the washing 
machines at Kimberley. Diamond pulsator 
at De Beers Diamond Mines, Kimberley, 
South Africa Si 

Railway to Kimberley, South Africa 34 

One day's diamond wash at the Kimberley 
Mines 36 

The tunnel along one-thousand -foot level. De 
Beers Diamond Mines .... 38 

Cullinan Diamond — in the rough; actual size . 46 

Cullinan Diamond: Nine largest gems cut from 
the rough stone ..... 48 

Cullinan Diamond: Cleaving implements; room 
in Amsterdam where the rough stone was cut 
end polished - ..... 50 

xiv Illustrations 

Amethyst: Extraordinacy specimea of Amethyst 
crystals ....... 

Garnet crystals, and pebbles of Pyrope. Sap* 
phires. Diamond crystals from Kimberley 
Mines ....... 

Siberian Topaz. Specimens in United States 
National Museum 

. 122 

Agate: Carnelian from Uruguay. Moss Agate 176 
Agate with ooncenlric rings .... 178 
Azurite and Malachite. Topaz crystals with 
Smoky Quartz. Specimens in United States 
National Museum ..... 186 
Diamond cutter end setter at work. Diamond 

sawing niachiues ..... 194 

Oriental gem cutters ..... 198 
Tulp Straat. Amsterdam — The diamond centre 

of the world 200 

Gem minerals: A celebrated collection . 250 

Brooch, Festoon, Ring, and Earring: Sugges- 
tions for students and jewellers. Designed in 

1910 ssa 

Suggestions for students and jewellers. De- 
signed in 1010 954 

Design for a Diamond Collar. Courtesy of 
Juergens & Anderson, Chicago, W. . . S56 

Handicraft of Pratt Institute students . . 96S 


^■tatt Instit 


Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y. Work of 
studepts 200 

Suggestions for students and jewellers. Work 
of students at Pratt Institute. Designed in 
1910 262 

Styles of Platinum Diamond Jewelry, 1924. 
Designs by S. Kaufman. Courtesy of " Gems 
Creations." 264 

Cooper Union Jewelry Class: Prize design by 
Mr. Frederick E. Bauer .266 

Styles of Platinum Diamond Jewelry, 1924, 
Designs by S. Kaufman. Courtesy of "Gems 
Creations." 268 

Styles of Platinum Diamond Jewelry, 1924. 
Designs byS. Kaufman. Courtesy of "Gems 

Creations." 270 

lode Island School of Design: Specimens of 
.udents' work ...... 272 

lised silver necklace, pale yellow Topaz, and 
white Pearl blisters by Florence A. Richmond. 
Pendants by Frank Gardner Hale. Society of 
Arts and Crafts. Boston .... 274 

Development of a design by a student at the 
Bbode Island School of Design . . 27() 

Styles of Platinum Diamond Jewelry, 1924. 
Designs by S. Kaufman. Courtesy of "Gems 
Creations" 278 




A Book of Precious Stones 

In i 
BOM the earliest ages jewels have powerfully 
attracted niankind, and the treatment of 
precious stones and the precious metals iu which 
thej are set, often serves aa important evidence, 
not only concerning the art of early times and 
peoples, but also concerning their manners and 
customs. Jewels have been the gifts and ran- 
soms of kings, the causes of devastating wars, 
of the overthrow of dynasties, of regicides, of 
DOtorioQB thefts, and of innumerable crimes of 
violence. The known history of some existent 
famous gems covers more years than the story 
of some modern nations. Around the flashing 
KobiQCor and its compeers cluster world-famous 
Iflgpniia, oot less fascinating to the general 

2 A Book of Precious Stones 

reader who loves the strange and romantic, tbao 
to the antiquary or the historian or the scientist 
These tales of fact or fiction are fascinating in 
part, because they associate with the gems fair 
women whose names have become synonymoua 
with whatever is beautiful and beguiling in the 
sex. In the mind of the lowest savage, as in 
the thought of man in his highest degree of 
civilisation, personal adornment has always oc- 
cupied a prominent place, and for such adorn- 
ment gems are most prized. The symbolism 
and sentiment of the precious and semiprecious 
stones, and precious metals, permeate literature. 
Jewels have their place in the descriptions of 
heaven in the sacred wTitings of almost every 
people that has attained to a written language. 

80 wide and so interesting is the subject of 
precious stones and precious metals, their artis- 
tic treatment apart and combined, their im- 
portance in society, commerce, and the arts, their 
part in tlie wealth of indiriduals and nations, 
that it is in a high degree remarltable that, 
comparatively speaking, so few books have been 
written about them. 

Geology and mineralogy are the names of the 
sciences that concern themselves witli minerals 
— among them gems — in the rough ; metallurgy 

Gems and Jewelry 

is the name of the science that has to do with 
metals; " gemology " is a word sometimes used 
to describe the branch of art or of the crafts 
that deals with gems which have passed through 
the hands of the diamond cutter or the lapi- 
dary. The general reader resents the disposi- 
tion of scientific writers to indulge in technical 
terminology, though the steady development of 
popular interest in pure science has in some 
measure reconciled the reading masses to a 
sparing and jadicioos use of Uie technical terms 
of specialists. 

Scientific hobbies are nowadays common; 
some take to mineralogy, some to botany, some 
to entomology. So far as popularity is con- 
cerned, the scientific study of gems is, as com- 
pared with the studies above named, at a 
disadvantage. The novice adventuring into the 
study of nature is apt to be attracted by life 
and action, and his attention won by the forms 
that are most beautiful, as birds, butterflies, 
or wildflowers. Sometimes the adaptability of 
specimens to photography weighs heavily in the 
scale of choice, or, perhaps, the ease with which 
they can be preserved with their natural bril- 
liancy of colouring as in the case of moths, 
beetles, or the leaves of forest trees. The 

4 A Book of Precious Stones 

faacination of penetrating a realm difficalt and 
dreaded, aa tbe reptile kingdom, or of gaining 
new facts about the life histories of powerful 
or caniivorous wild beasts proves moat potent 
to some investigators. Geology allures some 
with its prospecting rambles and the employment 
found in classifying and installing specimens for 

The high intrinsic value of diamonds and other 
precious stones and of precious metals and of 
all but the least valuable of semi-precious stones, 
in the rough or in ore, prohibits, for most of 
us, the possession of representative groups of 
specimeDS, and men are not apt to interest them- 
selv^ deeply in subjects that are difficult of 
access for the student and observer. This, no 
doubt, is wbj the sciences and the arts and crafts 
immediately concerned with precious stones and 
their settings can hardly be called popular. 
Such being the case, there is certainly a place 
for a book on gems that will be of substantial 
value to the practical dealer in jewels, to the 
designer of settings for precious stones, and to 
the general public who, for a hundred dififerent 
reasons, are curious in regard to the subjects of 
which the work treats. It is the author's hope 
that the present volume will meet the needs of 


Gems and Jewelry 

varioos classes of readers above referred to, 
and will at tbe same time interest them and 
give them pleasure. 

And bere tbe author would lay stroug em- 
phasis on one point, namely, that tbe average 
jewel merchant or salesman is badly handi- 
capped in bis desire to inform himself regardiug 
"gemology/' by the lack of reliable and easily 
accessible books concerned with matters of the 
first interest to him. There are, to be sure, 
books, but they are most of them either too 
technical or too costly. Tbe jewelry trade has 
its journals, and the best of these offer valuable 
special information concerning the science and 
art of gems and jewelry; but, nevertheless, tbe 
basiness man lacks authoritative books which 
can be understood by readers not possessed of 
a scientific education. Tlie desire for a special, 
yet not too technical, literature often finds a 
Toice in the jewellers' trade journals. For in. 
ce, in The National Jeweller and Optician 
April, 1908, there is this complaint: "I 
low men in the hardware and chemical and 
other lines who have shelves of interesting books 
about their lines of commerce right at their 
hands. This is nowhere the case in our down- 
town jewelry district In fact, no trade is 



A Book of Precious Stones 

poorer in books on the trade than the jewelry 
and silver and art-metal trades." And in the 
same issue the complaint is repeated. ** It is 
both astonishing and disappointing/' says the 
journal in question, *^ that a craft of such an- 
tiquity and interest as that of jewelry should 
have virtually no distinctive literature." 

The present volume is designed, as far as it 
may, to supply the lack alluded to, and to give 
the salesman and the merchant the kind of in- 
formation which his customers can fairly expect 
of him. 





HEREBeems to be a considerable difference 
of opinion among writers on the subject 
of gems as to those stones which should be 
classed as precious and those which should be 
classed as semi-precious. The more scientific 
pWritera, from their inclination to treat the 
tter from the view-point of the mineralogist, 
appear to he little influenced in their classifica- 
tions by tlie inexorable law of demand and sup- 
ply, or the fickleness of fashion and popular 
favour. This book, being for the many, will 
present a classification of the principal gems as 
handled at the period of its pul)lication by the 
jewelry trade in America, and classified accord- 
ing to present standards of popularity, or what 
the authors believe to be such. The arrange- 
nent of the scale of popularity is based upon per- 
inal experience and ohsenation, and ujion the 
liDioas of leading American business concerns 

A Book of Precious Stones 

1 the bnsiDess of importitig and 
dealing in precious and semi-precioas stones, aa 
expressed in replies to letters of inquiry asking 
for lists of gems classified according to their 
respective values and the present demand for 
them. The great divergence of opinion, after 
the precious stones were set apart, was very in- 
teresting. The lists in question were evidently 
prepared after careful consideration; with most 
of them there went expressions of doubt as to 
the propriety or correctness of tlie arrangement. 

Following my nomination of the five precioas 
stones, the semi-precious stones are divided into 
four classes, the arrangement within each class 
being alphabetical, because there appears to he 
no basis upon which it would seem justifiable 
to give some of these minor gems precedence 
over others, A number of stones clearly only 
semi-precious, but which are only occasionally 
seen by jewellers, are brieSy covered in one 

The quintet of gems herein designated as pre- 
cious stones are accepted as such by all aathori- 
ties without dissent, with the exception that the 
pearl is omitted by some devoted scientific min- 
eralogists, because it is not an original mineral. 
Some writers increase the number of precious 


Classifications of Stones 

Unes, as, for instance, Mr. W. R. Cattelle, 
vho inclndes Oriental cat'e-eje, opal, tnrqaoise, 
aleiandrite, and spinel; the last, in trade par- 
lance, being the Balas mby, and this stone, to 
the general public, is a raby. 
_ , Uy classification is as follows : 




Class I 

Amethyst (Siberian) 
AqoB marine 
Chrysolite (Olivine and 

Eunzite (Spodumeoe or 


Opal (Precious or Noble 

^-of gem quality) 
Oriental Cat's-Eye (Cy- 
mophane, a variety of 
Chrysoberyl ) 
Topaz (Brazilian) 


Ibry sop rase 


Qarnet (Carbnncle, when 

cut en cabochon) 

A Book of Precious Stones 

Class III 



M00DBt0D« ^H 


ZircoD ^H 


Class IV 



Labradorite ^M 

Amazon ite 

Lapiz-lazuli ^H 


Malachite ^^ 




Sard or Sardonyi 

The fact that tliere ia no standard classifica- 
tion of precious stones is curiously illustrated 
by the great variation exhibited by leading au- 
thorities on the subject. Mr. Edwin W. 
Streeter, the famous English author of books on 
precious stones, after discussing the various fac- 
tors of value in several precious stones, writes 
ID the first chapter of his book Precious Stones 
and Oema, as follows: 

It is difficult to arrange the various Preciona 
Btones in the order of their relative value, that 
order being subjeot to occasional variation accord- 
ing to the caprice of fashion or the rarity of the 
Btones. Nevertheless it is believed that the follow- 
ing scheme, in which all Precious Stones are 
grouped in five classes, fairly indicates the relative 
rank which they take at the present day. 

^V I. Tbe 

Classifications of Stones 


The Pearl atands preeminent. It ifl troe that 
this snbstauce, being the product of a molluEC or 
ehell-flsh, ig not strictly a mineral. It ia, however, 
so intimately related in many ways with the family 
of true precious ftonea that it properly claims a 
place in any clasaification snch as that under dis- 

II. In the second class, and therefore at the 
head of the group of Precious Stones proper, standa 

I beyond all doubt the Ruby. 
HI. Then comes the Diamond, Many readers 
nay be surprised to And the Diamond talking so 
Bnbordinate a rank: but the time has gone by when 
this stone could claim a supreme position in the 
^arket. At the present day, the Jagerefontein 
Vine, in South Africa, prodncea Diamonds of pure 
water rivalling the finest stones that were ever 
brought to light from mines of India or of Brazil. 

IV. In the fourth class comes first the Emerald, 
then the Sapphire, next the Oriental Gat's-Eye, and 
afterwards the Precioua Opal. 

V. lo tbe fifth clasa may be placed such stones 
fts tbe Alexandrite, the Jacinth, the Oriental Onyx, 
the Peridot, the Topaz, and the Zircon, Some of 
these, especially the Alexandrite, are so beautiful 
that they deserve a more extended use in the arts 
of jewelry than they enjoy at present. 

After these stones comes another class, which 
may be called the group of Sevdprecious Stones. 
Kany of these either lack transparency, or nossees 
it in only very limited degree; while those which 
are pellucid are too common to command more than 
a trivial value. Such stones are frequently used 
for iDlaid work, or similar ornamental pnrpow 

A Book of Precious Stones 

rather than for personal decoration. Ab examples 
of SQch BtoneB may be cited the Agate, Malachite, 
and Rock-crystal. 

Dr. Max Bauer, in his great work on precious 
stones, discusses in a very interesting way the 
motives of mineralogists and jewellers in gronp- 
jng and classifying gems, and seems to regard 
each as perfectly justified from their differeDt 
Tiew-points. As an example he cites the classi- 
ficatiott by K. E. Kluge, the German authority, 
as used in his Handbuch der Edelsteinkunde, 
published in 1860, wherein Kluge distinguishes 
five groups of precious stones, characterised by 
their value as gems, their hardness, optical 
characters, and rarity of occurrence. It is in- 
teresting to note also that, according to Bauer, 
Kluge was dominated to a large extent by the 
then market valoe of the stones, probably in 
Germany, or in the European markets in generaL 
1. Tbub Pbiciocs Btonkb OB Jbwbls 

Distinguishing characters are: great hardness, 
flne colour, i»erfect transparency combined with 
strong lustre (Are), susceptibility of a flne polish, 
and rarity of oconrrence in specimens saltable for 


^B HarduesH, between 8 and 10. ConsistiDg of 
^Bpnre carboo, or pure alumina, or with alumina 
predominating. Fine specimens of very rare 
occnirence and of the highest value. 

Classifications of Stones 

A. Oema of the First Rank 

L Diamond 

2. C!onindum(rnbj,Hap- 
pMre, etc.) 

3. Chrysoberyl 

4. Spinel 

B. Qems of the Second Rank 

^H pture, et 

^^^^^Kbess, between 7 and 8 (except precious 
^^BSOm^ Specific gravity usually over 3. Silica 
a prominent constitueDt. In specimens of large 
SIM and of fairly frequent occurrence. Value 
generally less than stones of Group A, but per- 
fect specimens are more highly prized than 
poorer specimens of Group A. 

6. Zircon 

6. Beryl (emerald, etc.) 
. 7. Topaz 

8. Tonrmaline 

9. Oarnet 

10. PreciouB Opal 

' O. Oems of the Third Rank 

Theee are intermediate in character, between 
the tme gems and the eemi-precious stones. 
Hardness between 6 and 7- Specific gravity 
usually greater than 2.5. With the exception 


A Book of Precious Stones 

of turquoise, silica is a prominent constituent 
of all these stones. Value usually not very 
great; only fine specimens of a few members 
of the group (eordierite, chrysolite, turquoise) 
UaTe any considerable value. Specimens worth 
cutting of comparatively rare occurrence, otliers 
(airly frequent. 

11, Cordierite 
13. Idocracte 

13. Chrjsolife 

14. Axinite 

15. Kjanite 

16. Staurollte 

17. Andaliisite 

18. Chiastolite 

19. Epidote 

20. Turquoise 

2. 8bmi-Preciodb Stones 

These have some or all of the distinguishing 
characters of precious stones, but to a less 
marked degree. 

D. Gems of the Fourth Rank 

Hardness, 4r-7. Specific gravity 3-3 (with the 
exception of amber). Colour and lustre are 
frequently prominent features. Not as a rule 
perfectly transparent : often translucent, or 
translucent at the edges only. Wide distribn- 
tioD. Value, as a rule, small. 

21. Quartz 
A. CrystalliBed quartz 

a. ECocJi-CryBtal 

b. Amethyst 


^V Classifications of Stones 15 ^^^H 

^H r. CommoD Quartz 

b. Semi-Opal ^^^| 

^m 0. rrase 

c. Bydrophane ^^^H 

^H e. Aventarine 

Caoholong ^^H 

^1 f. Cut's-Eje 

Ja&per-Opal ^^^H 

^M^ g. Roae-Quartz 

f. Conimon-Opal ^^^| 

^^V. Chalcedony 

22. Feldspar ^^H 

^B a. ChaloGijODy 

Adularia ^^^H 

^B b. Agate (with ooyz) 

b. Amazon-Stone ^^^H 

^H c. Caraelian 

23. Labradorite ^^H 

^K d. Plasma 

24. Obsidian ^^^| 

^H e. Heliotrope 

25. Lapis-lazuli ^^H 

^m t. .Tanper 

26. Hauynite ^^^| 

H g. Chrysoprase 

27. Hyperstbene ^^^| 


B C. Opal 

29. Fluor-epar ^^^| 

H a. Fire-Opal 

Amber ^^^^^H 

^L^ B. Oema of the 


^^■MneaB and specific t 

gravity very variable. ^^^^| 

^0nr almost always dull 

Never transparent. ^^^H 

''IB- degree of lustre. Value very insignificant, ^^^| 

■i usually dependent npon the work bestowed ^^| 

I'ln tbem. These stones, 

, as well as many of ^^^| 

' preceding group, are m 

it faceted, but worked ^^^| 

the ordinary lapidary 

in the large stone- ^^^| 

itting works. 



steatite ^^H 


30. Pot-Btone ^^H 


37. Diallage ^^H 

^ Agalmatolite 

Broneite ^^^^^H 

A Book of Precious Stones 

39. Bastite 

40. Satin-epar (calcite 

and aragonite) 
il. Marble 

42. Satin-spar (gypsum) 

43. Alabaster 

44. Malachite 

45. Iron Pyrites 

46. Bhodochroeite 

47. Hematite 

48. Prebnite 

49. Elffiolite 

50. Natrolite 
61. Lava 

52. Quartz-breccia 

53. Lepidolite 

Among the stones enumerated above are some 
that are never worked as personal ornaments, 
and many of them have probably never been 
heard of by American jewellers. 

Because of the pre-eminence of Dr. Max 
Bauer's Precious Stones, in the realm which 
that great work so effectually covers, the ar- 
rangement of precious stonea made by the dis- 
tinguished author, and followed throughout in 
his work, is of interest It is as follows 



Ruby, Sapphire, including etar-eapphire 
white sapphire, " Oriental aquamarine," 
"Oriental emerald," "Oriental chrysolite," 
"Oriental topaz," "Oriental hyacinth," 
" Oriental amethyst," adamantine-spar. 

" Ruby-Bpinel," " Balas-ruby," " Alamandine- 
spinel," Bubicelle, Blue-spinel, Ceylonite. 


Classifications of Stones 17 

Gymophane ("Oriental cat's-eye"), Alexan- 

Emerald, Aqnamarine, " Aquamarine-ohrys- 
olite," Golden beryl. 

Qamet Gronp 

Hessonite (Cinnamon stone), Spessartite, Al- 
mandine, Pyrope (Bohemian garnet, ^^Cape 
ruby," and Rhodolite), Demantoid, Gros- 
sularite, Melanite, Topazolite. 

Precious opal, Fire-opal, Common opaL 




Chrysolite, Peridot. 



A Book of Precious Stones 

Linton ite 
Felspar Group 
Amazon -Btone, Ban-stone, Moon-atone, Labra- 
doreacent feldspar, Labradorite. 


Pyroxene and Hornblende Gronp 

Hypersthene (witb Bronzite, BaatJte, Dlal- 
lage), Diopside, Spodiimene (Hiddenite), 
Rhodonite (and Lepidolite), Nephrite, Jade- 
ite (Chloromelanife). . 


Crystallised quartz : Hock-crystal, Smoky- 
quartz, Amethyst, Citrine, Eose-quartz, 
Prase, Sapphire-quartz, Quartz with en- 
closures, Cat's-eye, Tiger-eye. 
Compact quartz: Hornstone, Chrysoppase, 

Wood-stone, Jasper, Aventnrine. 
Chalcedony: Commoo Chalcedony, Carori* 

Classifications of Stones 

ian, Plaema, Heliotrope, Agate with On;z, 


BatiD-epar (FibroaB Calcite, Aragonite, and 

PI nor- spar 
Iron -pyrites 

', In an appeodix Dr. Baner places Pearls : 

Of the authorities named as classifying gems, 
laiier and Kluge are manifestly moved by their 
sL'ieutific instincts, while Streeter was actuated 
by popular demand, but responded to temporary 
conditions and possibly, although maybe oncon- 
scioDBly, to personal interest. 

The final test of the rank of gems is their 
t in the market, for that tribunal is affected 
every factor and influence in the case. The 
Ave gems distinguished in this book as " the 
precioos stones " far outclass the gems in the 
ig list that follows in the test of cost, in which 
their merits are considered and summed op. 

30 A Book of Precious Stones 

Streeter exalts above all gems the pearl, tlie 
mollusc product wbich Bauer relegates with the 
comparatively common coral to an appendix. 
Streeter, who is recognised as a high British 
authority, accords the ruby second place and 
places tlie diamond third; but when he inscribed 
this judgment " The Syndicate," which now in 
his own city of London controls with the output 
of the South African diamond mines the world's 
gem markets, did not exist. As Streeter was, 
when he wrote his Precious Stones and Qctm, 
expensively and hazardously exploiting the 
famous ruby mines of Burma, he naturally 
regarded the ruby as of prime imiwrtance. 

Kluge's classification is primarily based on 
the degree of hardness, clearly from the view- 
point of tlie strictly scientific mineralogist. 
Dr. Baner also yields to the mineralogical in- 
fluence, for, while he justly leads with the 
diamond, following it with the ruby and then 
the sapphire, he continues by naming a line of 
gems seldom handled, concluding with "Ada- 
mantine spar," a name which some jewellers 
have never heard, nor have they seen the min- 
eral it specifies. This extreme course is pursued 
by Dr. Bauer because these several stones are 
alike with the ruby and the sapphire in being 

Classifications of Stones 

mineral comndnm. Dr. Bauer then named 
spinel, and its varieties cliryeoberyl and cymo- 
phane, before reaching the noble emerald. 
Exceptions may be taken to tlie order in which 
i-precious stones are named by the author 
those whose individual experiences in trade 
ive differed ; but it is believed that the five 
:ious stones, and the order in which they 
named, represent the understanding of 
lerican gem dealers and well-informed pur- 
cliasers, and that the classification of the semi- 
precious stones fairly represents their general 

Here it may be said, in connection with the 
influence the value of gems has in their classi- 
tion, that the price of any kind of precious 
ine, or of individual specimens, while depend- 
ig chiefly upon beauty, durability, and similar 
characteristics, is governed also by extrinsic 
considerations such as the law of supply and 
land and many other things, including fash- 
fads, and fancies. A common question 
propounded to stone merchants is, What is the 
price of diamonds, sapphires, rubies, or other 
gems? as though each kind of stone had a com- 
mon price in the market, like October wheat or 
aieel billets. Each gem stands strictly upon ita 




A Book of Precious Stones 

own merits, and in pronouncing a valoation t 
it the expert dealer takes into consideration 
every one of the several factors that are apparent 
to his keen and reflective examination. Con- 
sidering the very slight differences involved, or 
that appear slight to the inexperienced, it is re- 
markable how nearly several different experts 
will agree upon the market value of a stone upon 
which each of them renders an opinion. In the 
following pages the various precious and semi- 
precious atones will be considered in the order 
in which they are arranged in our own classifi- 
cation on pages 9 and 10. 



"^HE diamond is generally regarded as the 
premier gem of the world. Solitary in its 
chemical compoaition among precious stones, it 
is pure carbon, a primary fact that is not as 
commonly known as it should be and is supposed 
to be. It seems, indeed, incongroous that such 
common substances as graphite and lamp-black 
should be the same, save that they are aocrys- 
tallised, as this prince of gems; yet notwith- 
standing its humble connections, the diamond, 
in its adamantine lustre, high refraction, reflec- 
tion, and dispersion of light, and hardness, is 
alone among minerals. Despite its hardness, the 
diamond is not indestrnctihle ; diamond will cut 
diamond; it can be burned in the air, being car- 
bon, and will then leave behind carbon dioxide 
gas and, as ashes, an impurity called carbonado. 
The facets of a cut diamond can be worn away 
^_tD some extent by the constant rubbing of fab- 
^nlcs, as is often manifest by contact with wear- 



A Book of Precious Stones 

ing apparel. The diamond is also brittle to 
that it may be easily fractured, especially at the 
girdle, by strikiog it a blow agaiost some hard 
substance, and in a steel mortar with a steel 
pestle it may be reduced to powder. By what 
process in Nature's workshop carbon was crys- 
tallised into the diamond is nnknown, but scioi- 
tiflc investigators agree that the process was 
slow and a prime factor was a titanic pressure. 

The specific gravity of the diamond is 3.52; 
hardness, 10; crystallisation, isometric; cleav- 
age, octahedral and perfect; refraction simple, 
with an index of 2.4.39; a. high dispersive 
power; lustre, brilliant adamantine; is combus- 
tible though infusible ; electric, positively, by 
friction and a non-conductor of electricity; it is 
phosphorescent and does not polarise light. 

There are three forms of diamonds: crystal- 
lised, used as gems; crystalline — imperfect crys- 
tallisation, — harder than crystals, termed bort (a 
word also applied to chips, waste, and stones 
unfit for catting) ; and carbonado, steel gray or 
black, shapeless, and without cleavage. 

To the diamond's surpassing property of dis- 
persing light, or dividing it into coloured rays, 
is due that fascinating flash of prismatic hues 
termed its fire. The stone's wondrous brilliancy 

The Diamond 


I due in part to the total reflection of light from 
its internal faces when the incident raj strikes 
it at an angle of a little more than twenty-four 
degrees. Colourless diamonds are richest in 
the floBhing of prismatic hues, while in some 
coloured specimens it is scarcely apparent; at 
the same time hy-waters, yellow- tinged stones, 
are sometimes more brilliant in artificial light 
than are the colourless diamonds. 

Diamonds have a wide range of coloor; most 
nnraerons are the whites, yellows, and browns in 
a great yarietj of shades; then come the greens; 
red stones of strong tints are very rare, as are 
also blue, which hare been found almost ex- 
clasively io India; other tints of occasional 
occurrence are garnet, hyacinth, rose, peach- 
blossom, lilac, cinnamon, and brown; black, 
milky, and opalescent diamonds are among the 
rarities. Diamonds without tint or flaw are 
rare indeed and even most of the world's famous 
diamonds have imperfections. 

The origin of the diamond's name is the Greek 
word aJamas, meaning unconquerable; from the 
iame root spring our words adamant and ada- 

The origin of the diamond, according to classi- 
•■al mythology, was its formation by Jupiter, 


A Book of Precious Stones 

who transformed into stone a man, Diamond of 
Crete, for refusing to forget Jupit«r after he had 
commanded all men to do so. 

The diamond is found in alluvial deposits of 
gravel, sand, or clay, associated with quarta, 
gold, platinum, zircon, rutile, hematite, ilmen- 
ite, chrysoberyl, topaz, corundum, garnet, and 
other minerals appearing in granitic formatioos; 
also in quartzose conglomerates, in peridot ite 
veins, in gneiss, and in eruptive pegmatite. 

The ancient source of the world's supply of 
diamonds was exclusively India; later Borneo 
produced some, hut up to about the year 1700 
India was the sole source, and from the an- 
ciently famous diamond district and market of 
Golconda, between Bombay and Madras, in the 
southern portion, came tlie Kohinoor, the blue 
Hope Diamond, and other world-famous gems. 
The French traveller Tavernier recorded that he 
visited Golconda in 1665 and that sixty thou- 
sand men were employed there; this field is now 
abandoned. The modem diamond mines of In- 
dia are in three principal localities. The 
Madras Presidency in Southern India, which 
includes the districts of Kadapah, Bellary, Kar- 
nul, Kistna, and Qodavari, and also ancient 
Golconda. The second locality is farther north 

The Diamond 

^^btween the Mabanadi and Godarari rivers, and 
includes Sambalpur and Waigarli eighty miles 
Boutb-east of Nagpur, as well as portions of 
Chutia Nagpnr province. Bundelkhand, Cen- 
tral India, contains the third region, the prin- 
cipal field being near the city of Panna. The 
product of all the mines of India has decreased 
until now it is but a small part of the world's 

Itnrneo's fields produce annually about three 
thousand carats. The basin of the Kapceas 
River, on the western slope of the Ratoos Moun- 
tain, near the town of Pontianak, ia the principal 

In 1728 diamonds were discovered in Brazil. 
They were found by gold miners in river sands, 
bnt the finders did not identify the curious 
crystals sometimes found in their pans when 
vafihing the sand for gold-dust and scales. It 
in related that a monk who had seen diamonds 
mined in India recognised the characteristics of 
the Drazilian stones. No sooner had the news 
f the valuable discovery reached the Portuguese 

an the King of Portugal seized for the Crown 

he lands known or thouglit likely to be dia- 

liondiferoue. Near Diamantina, in Minas Ge- 

, the diamonds are obtained from both river 


A Book of Precious Stones 

and prairie washings. The river deposits are 
rolled quartz pebbles, mixed with or united by 
a ferruginous clay of which the usual founda- 
tion is talcose clajs. Associated minerate in* 
elude, rutile, hematite, ilmenite, quartz, kyanite, 
tourmaline, gold, garnet, and zircon. The finest 
stones result from the prairie washings, where 
the diamonds occur in a conglomerate of quartz 
fragments overlaid by earth or sand. Bagagem 
is a productive locality, and there a fine stone 
weighing 247V2 carats was found. Ahatehe, 
Minns Geraes, is another important field. Dia- 
monds are also found at Lencaes, Bahia; along 
the river Cacholira, chiefly at Surua and Sinorca, 
and on the Salobro and other branches of the 
Pardo River. 

The world's diamond markets to-day are al- 
most entirely supplied by the diggings in South 
Africa, where the discovery of diamonds was so 
recent as 1867. Children are accredited with 
the finding of the diamond in Bonth Africa. A 
Boer farmer, Daniel Jacobs, bad a farm near 
the present town of Barkly West on the Vaal 
River. On the river's strand were many glitter- 
ing and coloured pebbles, the only playthings 
the Jacobs children could get; these pebbles in- 
cluded camelian, agates and many varieties ol 


^r THE NEW fOBK ^^M 

A5TOR, ^^_^^^^H 


The Diamond ag 

lartz, semi-precioQs stones of some valne if cut 
id marketed in far-off Europe. Among the 
ibliles which a little son of the Boer farmer 
Dgbt into the house was a small white stone 
'hich sparkled so in the aun that the vrou of 
le Boer farmer noticed it, although she did not 
care sufficiently to pick it up, and only mentioned 
it to a neighboar, Schalk van Niekirfe, who asked 
to see it. The little white pebble had been 
thnjwn out, but the children found it in the 
dust of the yard. Van Niekirk wiped the duet 
from the stone and found it so interesting that 
he offered to buy it, which occasioned some 
mirth, and it was given to him. With a vague 
instinct that the stone was unusual and had some 
valae. Van Niekirk subsequently asked a travel- 
ling trader, John Reilly, to see if he coold find 
oat what it was and if anybody would give any 
iney for it. Several merchants in Hopetown 
id in Colesberg examined it, said it was pretty, 
and one thongbt it might be a topaz, bnt none 
would give a penny for it. Reilly might have 
thrown it away but for a casnal exhibition of the 
pebble to Lorenzo Boyes, a Civil Commissioner 
at Colesberg, who, experimenting, found that the 
pebble would scratch glass, and seriously said he 
thought it was a diamond. A local apothecary, 


A Book of Precious Stones 

Dr. Kirsh, of Colesberg, hearing the discussion 
and examining the stone, bet Commissioner 
Boyes a hat that the stone was only a topaz. 
The Btone was then sent for determination to 
the leading mineralogist of the Cape Colony, 
Dr. W. Guybon Atheratone, at Grahamstown, 
and it was so lightly valued that, to save a 
higher postage rate, it was mailed to Grahams- 
town in an unsealed envelope. The expert re- 
ported to Mr. Boyes : " I congratulate yon on 
the stone you have sent me. It is a veritable 
diamond, weighs twenty-one and a quarter ca- 
rats, and is worth five hundred pounds. It has 
spoiled all the jewellers' files in Grahamstown, 
and where that came from there must be lots 
more. Can I send it to Mr. Southey, Colonial 
Secretary? " 

Upon Dr. Atherstone's report Sir Philip 
Wodehouse, the Governor at the Cape, bought 
the rough diamond at Dr, Atliersfone's valua- 
tion, and the diamond was sent to the Paris 
Exposition, where it created interest, but no 
great sensation. Thus a child's find was des- 
tined to revolutionise the world's diamond 
trade, alter the map and the history of Sonth 
Africa, and place the regulation of the price of 
the diamond in the bands of a London syndicate. 

The Diamond 


^V'Tbe Dewa of the discover; set Boer farmers 
in the Vaal valley to some desultory turning 
oxer of river gravel in a search for another 
preciotts "blinke klippe" (bright stone); bat 
it was ten months before a second diamond was 
found, and this was on a spot thirty miles away, 
on the bank of the river below the junction of 
the Vaal and Orange rivers. In 1868 a few more 
email diamonds were picked up, and then, in 
March, 1869, a magniticent white diamond weieh- 
ing 83.5 carats was picked up by a Griqua shep- 
herd boy on the farm Zendfontein, near the 
Orange River. Schalk van Niekirk made this 
poor South African native a local Crcesus by 
trading for the stone five hundred sheep, ten 
oxen, and a horse; the thrifty Boer sold the 
diamond for nearly $55,000 to Lilienfeld 
Brothers of Hopetown, and Earl Dudley later 
bought this gem, now the famous *' Star of 
South Africa," for nearly |125,000. 

After this, diamond-hunting became more 

Sian a pastime in South Africa. The first sys- 

matic digging and sifting of the alluvial 

nuQd of the Vaal valley was in November, 

, by an organised party of prospectors from 

iJaritKburg in Natal, initiated by Major Francis 

of the British Army, then stationed at Marltz- 


A Book of Precious Stones 

borg, and led by Captain Rolleston. The sja- 
tematic prospecting was begun at Hebron, where 
the party was joioed by two experienced Ana- 
tralian gold diggers named Glenie and King, 
and also by a trader, named Parker, who, like 
the Australians, had already been attracted to 
the locality by the reports of the diamonds 
found. These prospectors shovelled the river 
gravel into cradles and pursued the methods of 
placer washing in vogue in America and Aoa- 
tralia. They toiled for many days without 
Bight of a diamond or a grain of gold dust: 
they then followed the river twenty miles 
down to Klip-drift, opposite the Mission Sta- 
tion at Pniel; there on January 7, 1870, th^ 
found in one of their cradles the first small 
diamond, the reward of expert methods in tb 
new field. Then came the swarm of diamont 

While the horde of gem seekers toiled ohq 
suffered hardships on the Vaal, De Klerk, a Vtoa 
overseer on Jagersfontein, the farm of Jacobs 
Magdalena Cecilia Visser, in a pretty green valley 
near the settlement of Fauresmith, in the Orangq 
Free State, observed garnets in the course of 
little stream, and, having heard that the di^ei 



The Diamond 


^Hi the Vaal beliered the presence of garoets to 
be an indication of the probable proximity of 
diamonds, began prospecting one day in August, 
1870, and, sifting the gravel in an ordinary 
wire sieve, at the depth of six feet he found a 
fine diamond of fifty carats. Soon after, in Sep- 
tember, a still more remarkable discovery of 
diamonds was made at Dutoitspan, on the farm 
of DorstfonteiQ, about twenty miles south-east 
of Pniel ; here diamond seeking merged into 
diamond mining, the diggers penetrating the 
ground many feet and finding the best stones 
below the surface. Because of the character of 
the rotten rock encountered here, the miners 
made open cuts instead of sinking shafts. The 
army of diamond seekers spread over the adjoin- 
ing ground, and early in the year 1871 diamonds 
were found at Bulfontein, and early in May 
ou De Beers's farm; in July, diamond miners 
were digging a well for water and, seventy-six 
feet below the surface, a well-digger was amazed 
to see a magnificent diamond, which proved 
afterward to weigh eighty-seven carats, spark- 
ling on the wall of the well. This location 
was then called — because of the great massing 
prospectors there — New Kosh or Colesberg 


A Book of Precious Stones 

Kopje; this was the beginning of the now world- 
famous Kimberle; mine and the South African 
mining metropolis of Eimberlej. 

From this event until 1904, the whole history 
of South African diamond mining has been abl; 
QDd thorouglily covered in the copiously illus- 
trated and valuable book of Gardner F. Wil- 
liams, M.A., entitled The Diamond Mines of 
South Africa. Mr. Williams was long the gen- 
eral manager of the De Beers Consolidated 
Mines, Ltd., and by experience and known capa- 
city ia the recognised authority upon this im- 
portant subject in the realm of gem history. 

A description of the financiering which re- 
conciled warring interests and heterogeneoos 
human elements, to which was added a genius 
for management which, through science in 
chemistry, mineralogyj mechanics, and business 
system, attained the highest degree of economic 
production and marketing, is not the least 
fascinating chapter in the wonderful story of 
the diamond in South Africa. The history of 
the contest between Briton and Boer, and all 
else that grew out of the discovery of diamonds 
on the Vaal, cannot be told here; but the mod- 
ern methods of extracting the rough diamonds 
from the blue ground in which they have rested 

The Diamond 


encased for ages is pertinent and worthy of some 
space in eren so compact a book as the present. 

The diamond-bearing bine earth from the 
mines is automatically dumped into ore bins 
and thence conveyed in trucks drawTi by endless 
wire rope and impelled by steam to the deposit- 
ing floors oD the receiving grounds, which are 
planed and rolled hard as if for use as tennis 
courts or brick drying floors. The De Beers 
mine floors are rectangular sections, six hun- 
dred yards long and two hundred yards wide, 
and extend for four miles; each floor holds 
about fifty tbonsand truck loads, a full load 
weighing about sixteen hundred pounds; spread 
out until about a foot in thiokne^, such a load 
covers about twenty-one square feet. In this 
great area of blue earth lie the invisible dia- 
monds, for, although some of the rough dia- 
monds may be as large as walnuts, persons 
walking over the blue earth have almost never 
seen one. Weathering disintegrates the breccia 
or blue earth, which process is carried and hast- 
ened by wheeled harrows drawn by steam trac- 
tion engines. Rain accelerates this weathering 
process and drought retards Jt. The blue 
ground from Kimberlej mine becomes well pul- 
reriHed in six months, with the favourable con- 


A Book of Precious Stones 

dition of a heavy Rummer rainfall, while 
De Beers earth nnder similar conditions re- 
quires a year's time. About five per cent of 
the De Beers mine blue ground is intractable; 
this, in large pieces, is removed to be reduced 
by crushers and rolls in the method commonly 
used for mineral ores. When thoroughly di»- 
integrated the blue ground is hauled to the 
washing machines to enter the first stage of 
concentration. Antomatic feeders supply the 
washing machines and the wet mixture from 
them goes through chutes into a revolving cylin- 
der perforated with boles one and one quarter 
inches in diameter; lumps too large to pass 
through these outlets emerge from the ends of 
the cylinders by way of a pan conveyor to 
crushing rolls. The pulverised ground which 
passes through the perforations is fed into shal- 
low circular pans, where the contents are swept 
aronnd by revolving arras, tipped with wedge- 
shaped teeth, on a vertical shaft, which forces 
the diamonds and other heavy minerals to the 
outer side of the pan, while the thin mod is 
discharged near the centre through an outlet 
into which it is guided by an inner rim. The 
concentrates go from this process into trti(^ 
with locked covers in which they are conrejj 

AT THE Kl«BF.lll-V.\' M\^V-.a 

The Diamond 


to the pulsator, where they are sifted into fire 
sizes, ranging from one sixth to five eighths of 
ail inch diameter, and passed into a combination 
of jigs or pulsators with stationary bottoms 
covered with screens with square meshes a little 
coarBer than the perforated plates of the cyl- 
inders that size the concentrate for the jigs. 
Upon the jig screens, a layer of leaden bullets 
for the finer sizes and of iron bullets for the 
coarser sizes is spread, forming a bed that 
prevents the deposit from passing through 
the screen too rapidly. The heaviest part of the 
deposit, with the diamonds, passes through the 
screens into pointed boxes from which the de- 
posit is drawn off and taken to the sorting 
tables. The refuse goes to the tailing heap. 

But one per cent, of the total amount of blue 
ground washed goes to the pulsator, and fifty- 
eight per cent, of this flows over the jigs as 
waste. Knmerous experiments were unsuccess- 
fully made to effect the separation of the dia- 
monds from the worthless concentrates in a less 
tedions and expensive way than sorting them 
hy hand, when a De Beers eniployee, Fred 
Kirsteo, suggested coating a shaking or percue- 
sion table with grease; and this resulted in the 
notable discovery that diamonds only, of all 


A Book, of Precious Stones 

the blue ground miuerals, adhered to greaee^ 
while all else would flow off with water as 
tailings. The improved shaking tables now 
used at the South African mines are corrugated, 
and while a flrst table fails to detain one third 
of the diamonds a second table recovers these, 
almost to the last diamond; so that this inveo- 
tion is practically as certain in its accomplish- 
ments as the human eye and hand, while 
proving a great economy in its operation. It 
has been demonstrated also that these greased 
shaking tables will hold other precious stones 
of high specific gravity and hardness. The 
diamonds which are heavily coated with grease^ 
of about the consistency of axle grease, by 
their experience with this process, are cleaned 
by boiling them in a solution of caustic soda. 
The quantity of deposit (diamonds) which 
reaches the sorting tables equals bat one cubic 
foot in 192 cubic feet 

From the sorting tables the diamonds are 
taken daily to tlie general office under an armed 
escort and delivered to the valuators in charge 
of the diamond department These experts 
clean the diamonds of extraneous matter by 
boiling them in a mixture of nitric and hydro- 
chloric acids, or in fluoric acid. When cleaned 

The Diamond 

ibe stones are carefully assorted according to 
faize, colour, and purity, and made ap in parcels 
L ready for shipping. 

The marketing of diamonds, if fnliy told, is 
t Htory in itself and possesses many phases of 
i Interest. Formerly local buyers, who repre- 
sented the leading diamond merchants of the 
world, competed at the South African mines 
for their product, bnt for the past several years 
the De Beers Company has sold in advance its 
annual production to a syndicate of London 
diamond merchants who have representatives 
residing in Kimberley, and this is now the 
medium through which both the product of the 
De Beers and the Premier mines exclusively 
reach the markets of the different nations of 
the world. 

The daily production of diamonds is put away 
in parcels until there has accumulated about 
fifty thousand carats of De Beers and Kim- 
berley diamonds, the stones from the two sources 
being mixed, and locally termed " pool goods." 
The sorters separate and classify them for ac- 
curate valuation as follows; 1, Close goods; 
2, Spotted stones; 3, Rejection cleavage; 4, Fine 
cleavage; 5, Light-brown cleavage; 6, Ordinary 
and rejection cleavage ; 7, Flats ; 8, Naats ; 


A Book of Precious Stones 

9, Rubbish; 10, Ilort. In the language of the 
diamond producers " Close goods " are pare 
stones of desirable sliapes; "Spotted stones" 
are crystals slightly spotted; and "Rejection" 
stones are those seriously depreciated by spots. 
" Cleavage " means brokeo stones. " Flats " 
are flat crystals formed by the distortion of 
octahedral crystallisation; and flat triangular 
crystals — twin stones — are " maacles." The re- 
fuse is classed as " rubbish," and common bort 
or "boart" is polishing material, while round, 
or shot, bort, found at Kimberley, is now valnable 
for diamond drill points, since Brazilian carbo- 
nado has become scarce. 

The first eight classes are farther snbdivided 
according to shades, as: Blue White, First 
Cape, Second Cape, First Bye, Second Bye, Off 
Colour, Light Yellow and Yellow. Only the 
"close" or first grade is actually assorted ac- 
cording to these eight shades; with the other 
grades the sorters are less particular. The ten 
expert sorters, all Europeans, use no magnify- 
ing glasses in their determinations, which are 
achieved with marvellous accuracy and rapidity. 
The assorted diamonds are divided into little 
heaps on a long table covered with white paper; 
the number of diamonds and their average 

The Diamond 

'eights and valnes are recorded, Tlie buyers 
ir the syndicate of Holbom Viaduct and Hat- 
in Garden, diamond importers of London, pay 
their diamonds at the De Beers Company's 
uth African diamond office in cash or bills 
exchange on London. 

Upon receiving the stones the buyers sort 
lein over to comply with the requirements in 
iDdon, after which the diamonds, now in from 
ree hundred and fifty to four hundred parcels, 
:h in a specially made paper inscribed with 
description of its contents, are packed in tin 
and these are securely wrapped in cloth- 
lined packing paper, carefully sealed and de- 
livered to the post-office, which forwards them 
to Europe as registered mail, the diamonds all 
being insured during transit in European in- 
iraoce companies. The syndicate's buyers 
ify the goods thus shipped as follows : 
goods. Brown goods. Spotted goods. Flat- 
shaped goods — all completely formed or crys- 
tallised stones; Pure cleavage, Spotted cleavage, 
Brown cleavage? — broken or split stones; Naats 
or Maacles — flat triangular crystals or twin- 
stones; Rejections or Bort — diamonds not 
adapted to or worthy of cutting and used 
cliiefl.v for splitting and polishing higher grade 




A Book of Precious Stones 

The higber classes of these are sob- 
divided into sis or seven shades and each colour 
is again subdivided into from eight to twelve 

When the diamonds arrive in London, they 
are once more reassorted according to the re- 
quirements of the trade. The purchasers are 
dealers in rough diamonds, dealers in brilliants 
who have their purchases cut and polished for 
sale, and manufacturers who cut and polish the 
goods for their own trade, not depending upon 
the regular diamond-cutting industry. 

The selling methods of the famous London 
Syndicate are peculiar. The different interests 
present, or represented by experts in the Lon- 
don market, are notified that a " sight " of the 
goods ready to be disposed of will be afforded 
on a certain date. The man wlio contemplates 
buying for himself or as a representative is 
compelled by the regulations of this strange 
market to declare his intentions and to make 
application to the absolute powers in control 
of the situation, weeks in advance of the time 
when a " sight " of the merchandise is expecte<l, 
for the precious opportunity to buy. 

When the favoured business man is admitted 
to a view of the goods, if he does not buy, he is 

The Diamond 43 

peoalised by being omitted from the purchasing 
list for six mouths. 

The United States of America is about the 
only nation that levies a duty en diamonds, 
under the present tariff, ten per cent, on cut 
diamonds, wliile the rough are admitted free. 
The London Syndicate assorts the diamonds ac* 
cording to qualities, and in general, the Ameri- 
can cutters purchase the best. The finest 
quality, the stones of the purest water, are 
brought here by American importers and cut 
in American establishments in a way to satisfy 
Americans, the most critical buyers of diamonds 
in the world, who demand the best effects, re- 
gardless of waste in diamond-cutting. Even 
the imported cut goods are frequently recut 

The other great market for diamonds is Am- 
sterdam in Holland. The industry of cutting 
diamonds which originated in India, and first 
appeared in Europe in the town of Bruges — 
where it was initiated by the Dutch lapidary, 
Lndwig van Berquen, who invented his par- 
ticular process in the year 1476 — was afterward 
centred in Antwerp, Belgium. After a struggle 
for the supremacy, however, Amsterdam became 
the chief centre of the industry, although it 


A Book of Precious Stones 

nerer sacceeded in monopolising it, even in Eo- 
rope. Max Bauer states in Lis book, completed 
in 1896, that the diamond-cutting industry in 
Amsterdam comprised seventy establishments 
equipped with modern appliances with steam as 
motive- jKJwer ; tlie industry gave employment 
to twelve thousand persons; one establiabment 
Lad four hundred and fifty grinding machines 
and about one thousand employees and in all 
there were in the diamond city about seven 
thousand grinding machines (skaifs) in opera- 
tion. American diamond buyers, or jewellers 
whose interest in that which pertains to their 
business leads them to visit Amsterdam, the 
diamond city, while abroad, usually come via 
Cologne. Amsterdam's principal hotel is a 
rendezvous for diamond importers. 

A financial transaction is said to Lave had 
much to do with enriching Amsterdam through 
locating there the centre of the diamond-cutting 
and polishing industry and making it one of 
the world's two greatest diamond markets ; some 
rough diamonds deposited in an Amsterdam 
bank centuries ago as collateral for a loan were 
ordered, by the bank officials, to be cut. One 
of the reasons why diamond-cutting as an in- 
dustry is firmly established in Europe is that 

The Diamond 


ipre baDks make loans on diamonds as col- 

During the fourteenth century Amsterdam was 
asylum for refugee merchants from Urabant; 
t its enduring prosperity did not begin until 
xteenth century, after the ruination of 
twerp by Spain. The population of Am- 
■rdam, according to a census taken in 1905, 
551,415 and it is now the chief Dutch 
loney market, the home of the Bank of The 
Tetberlands, the diamond-polishing and cutting 
idustry and cobalt blue manufactories being 
main industrial interests. The principal 
square of the city is the " Dam," and canals 
and well-shaded streets help to make the city 
picturesque. Places to see in Amsterdam are 
the Royal Palace, a not particularly impres- 
sive building of four stories and painted blue; 
the " Seaman's Loop," a kind of sailors' club 
on one side of the " Dam," and the Ryk's 
Museum, which houses some interesting evi- 
!Dces of Dutch industries as well as much 
listorical material. There are some exhibits of 
jewelry, gold and silver plate, and art metal 
work that prove interesting to the visiting 
foreign jeweller. 

Bat the great feature of the city in the eyes 

A Book of Precious Stones 

of the world, its diamond trade, is environed 
in an unpretentious street about one city block 
iu length, called Tulp Straat; manj of the 
buildings were dwellings now converted int« 
oCBce buildings. The many incongruities here 
include the existence of a dominant spirit, 
a species of the genus boss, an ontitled raler 
of the diamond trade, who is a character worthy 
a description by Dickens. 

A New York diamond merchant at Amster- 
dam was strolling through the city's streets with 
this gentleman when he stopped before the 
bulletin board of a Dutch newspaper and read 
with great interest some very startling head* 
lines. The New Yorker waited patiently to 
hear what the evening edition of an Amsterdam 
daily newspaper was purveying to its phlegmatic 
patrons, but the untitled ruler of the diamond 
trade only said musingly, " Well, yon Americana 
certainly are a great people." 

"Why, what have we done now?" asked the 

" A great people ; certainly a great people," 
reiterated the Hollander. 

" Say, what is it? " impatiently demanded the 
man from Maiden Lane. 

" Why, the whole city of Baltimore is burned 

The Diamond 


^Hip; when joa Americans do anything yon cer- 
tainly always do it on a large scale," replied 
the admiring Amsterdammer. 

The ways of marketing diamonds to the world 
are as pecniiar in Amsterdam as they are in 
London. After the diamonds are cut, and 
polished in the factories by Amsterdam's ten 
thoasand workmen, tliey are vended throagh 
commissioners or through brokers. There is a 
general meeting ground, a sort of exchange, and 
there buyers and brokers come together. The 
space is inadequate and sometimes an overflow 
meeting of fifty or more men are clamouring 
for admittance. When they view the mer- 
chandise and learn the prices quoted, the buyer 
who sees something he wants makes an Offer; 
the broker encloses the parcel bid upon in a 
sealed envelope with the offer made by the 
buyer written upon it and submits this to 
owners or persons interested in selling the 
goods; it is optional for the owner to accept or 
decline the offer, but if he does accept it, and 
thereafter the bidder should announce that he 
had usurped the feminine privilege of change- 
ing his mind, he will find that be must make 
good his offer or suffer a legal penalty, which 
might be a term of imprisonment. The dia- 


A Book of Precious Stones 

moDd brokers of Amaterdam receive a commis- 
Bion from both the seller and buyer. 

In Antwerp the principal diamond dealers 
have their ofBcea in their homes and usually 
the business is transacted there, or, in some 
cases, the buyers take the goods with them to 
their hotels " on memorandum " for leisurely 
examination before deciding upon their pur- 

The major event of gem history in the year 
1908 was the cutting at Amsterdam of the great 
Cullinan diamond, destined to become the 
brightest jewel in the British crown. In this 
connection it may be here mentioned that said 
crown was already of great weight — thirty-nine 
ounces and five pennyweights — a handicap that 
His Majesty King Edward VII. probably does 
not relish on the rare state occasions when he 
must submit to having it rest upon bis bead, 
as, for example, when it becomes his annual 
royal duty and prerogative to formally open 
Parliament. The crown, which usnally rests in 
the Tower of London, contained, prior to ad- 
ditions from the Cullinan Diamond, two thou- 
sand eight hundred and eighteen diamonds and 
two hundred and ninety-seven pearls, besides 
many other rare and exquisite jewels. Before 

! by the Cullinan Diamond, the chief 
gem ornamenting the crown was a ruby, valued 
according to an estimate at about f 500,000; tliia 
famous gem is the cue presented to the Blade 
Prince by Spain, in the year 1367, and was worn 
by Henry V. in his helmet at the battle of 


^The royal regalia are safely deposited in a 
"chamber of the Wakefield Tower in the Tower 
of London. The valuable addition resulting 
from the partitions of the Cullinan Diamond 
added nothing to the precautions against theft 
which previously existed. The crown jewels 
are thoroaghly lighted and guarded by night 
and by day, never, for an instant, being exempt 
from the scratiny of armed and uniformed , 
sentries. The jewels are kept in a glass case 
within a double cage of steel, and cleaned semi- 
annually under the supervision of high officers 
of the, British realm. The Cullinan Diamonds 
were on November 1, I90S, delivered to their 
Majesties, King Edward and Queen Alexandra, 
at Windsor Castle by Mr. Joseph Asscher of 
the Amsterdam firm which successfully cut the 
famoQs stone. Two secret service men of the Hol- 
iand government, accompanied by several Scot- 
land Yard detectives, guarded Mr. Asscher's 


A Book of Precious Stones 

ever7 movement against tlie poasible attacks of 
thieves. In the following month the CulIinaDH 
were conveyed to the Tower by a closely guarded 
royal messenger in a motor car, and placed 
with the regalia beside a model of the Kohl- 
noor. Since then the British public and visit- 
ors from all parts of the world have curiously 
viewed the famous gems. 

There was disappointment among the dia- 
mond cutters and in the gem trade in England 
when it was decided to send the Cullinan Dia- 
mond to Amsterdam to be cut; the great dis- 
tinction was conferred upon the house of J. 
Asscher & Co., of Amsterdam and Paris, whose 
" fabriek," or factory is in the Tulp Straat or 
" Tol-straat," as it is sometimes written, of 
Holland's capital. The stone was delivered to 
the Amsterdam firm in January, 1908, where 
for Dine months it was kept in the vault, of 
which the walls of concrete and steel are over 
two feet thick. On February 10th the stone 
was split by Mr. Joseph Asscher under the 
supervision of Messrs. M. J, Levy & Nephews, 
precious stone experts, retained to additionallj 
assure the best scientific methods in the opera- 
tions in which so vast a sum in values was 
involved. The stone was first cleft in two 

Tl' ' V / TOKX 


^^ecea b; Mr. Ai 

The Diamond 

by Mr. Assclier in such a way that a 
defective spot in the diamond was exactly !o 
tbe centre, leaving a part of it on each piece of 
the stone. Sobaequently the larger of these two 
pieces was split. 

The United States consnl at Amsterdam, Mr. 
Henry H. Morgan, forwarded to Washington 
the best account of the splitting operation that 
the aothor has read. After emphasising the 
delicacy of the work Mr. Morgan described the 
making of an incision in the stone with a dia- 
mond-cutting saw at the point where the stone 
was to be cleaved and, following the line of 
cleavage, to a depth of nearly three quarters of 
an inch. Before the operator were crystal 
models, cleaved to represent the effect upon the 
diamond so far as conld be indicated in such 
a manner. Id the incision made by the dia- 
mond saw a specially made steel knife, comb 
shaped, without a handle, was inserted; then, 
while the supervisors and several members of 
tbe house of Asscher intently and breathlessly 
looked on, Mr. Asscher struck the blade on its 
back with a steel rod and, with the success of 
the operation still in doabt, all saw the steel 
knife break against the adamant; again the 
stroke and with a chorus of sighs of relief the 

5* A Book of Precious Stones 

diamond fell in two parts, divided exactly as 
the expert Iiad planned. The two parts weighed, 
respectively, IO4OV2 carats and 19771/^ carats. 
The larger piece was eucceasfully divided late 
in February, after which the grinding and 
polishing continued until November. The Lon- 
don Times on November 10, 1908, published the 
first authentic description of the finished CuUi- 
nan DiamoQds as follows: 


In the original dtate the Cullinan Dietfl 
weighed 3253% English carats, or over 1 1/3 pounds 
avoirdupois. It is now divided as follows: (1) a 
pendeloque or drop brilliant, weighing 5161^ carats, 
dimensions, 2.322 inches long and 1.791 inches 
broad; (2) a square brilliant, weighing 309 3/18 
carats, 1.771 inches long by 1,594 broad; (3) a 
pendeloque, weighing 92 carats; (4) a square bril- 
liant, 62 carats; (5) a heart-shaped brilliant, 18% 
carats; (6) a marquise brilliant, II14 carats; (7) 
a marquise brilliant, 8 9/16 carats; (8) a square 
brilliant, &% carats; {9) a pendeloque, 4 9/32 
carats; (10) 96 brilliants, weighing 7% carats; 
and (11) a quantity of unpolished "ends," weigh- 
ing 9 carats. 

The first and second of these stones are by far 
the largest in existence. Even the second is much 
bigger than the largest previously known brilliant, 
viz., the Jubilee, weighing 239 carats, while beside 
either of them so famous a jewel as the Etihinoor 
sinks into comparative insigni&cance, sinoe its , 

The Diamond 

reight, 102% carats, is little more than one third 
that of the emaller, or one fifth that of the 
Moreover, the stones are not more die- 
ttngnished for size than for quality. All of them, 
the biggest to the smallest, are absolutely 
rithoat flaw and of the flneat extra blue-white 
tolour existing. 

As regards the two largest, an innoration ' 
bade in the manner of cutting. Normally a bril- 
liant has 58 facets. In view, however, of the im- 
mense size of the two largest Cullinan brilliants, it 
was determined to have an increased number, and 
to give the first 74 facets and the second 66. This 
lecisioD has been abundantly vindicated by the 
suits, for the stones exhibit the most marvellous 
irilliancy that diamonds can show. This fact is 
pll the more remarkable and satisfactory because 
rery large brilliants are apt to be somewhat dull 
md deficient in fire. 

This monameiital diamond was found Jana* 
T 27, 1905, on the brink of the open workings 
o( mine No. 2 of the new (Transvaal) Premier 
mines, near Pretoria, South Africa, by the man- 
ager of the mines, Mr. Frederick Wells, an old 
employee of the Kimberley mines. While mak- 
ing bis rounds of inspection Mr, Wells's eye 
laagbt a gleam in some debris and, investiga- 
he perceived that it was undoubtedly a 
irge diamond; placing his find in the pocket 
' bia sack coat he took it to the company^a 


A Book of Precious Stones 

office and its importance was quickly realised. 
The stone was weiglied aad found to register 
exactly 3253% carats. Immediately the news 
was transmitted by telegraph and cable to all 
parts of tlie world that the world's greatest 
diamond had been discovered. The stone was 
christened " The Cullinan Diamond " after Mr. 
T. N. Cullinan, the chairman of the Premier 
(Transvaal) Diamond Company. At the in- 
stance of Premier Botha, the Transvaal Ab- 
sembly presented the great diamond to King 
Edward VII, in recognition of his granting a 
constitution to the Transvaal Colony. As 
stated, the diamond, rough, weighed 3253% 
carats, and measured four by two and one-half 
by one to two inches. The stone had four 
cleavage planes, which led experts to snrmise 
that other pieces of the same stone are still in 
the mines. To one who was not familiar with 
diamonds the great diamond nearly resembled 
a piece of ice. 

The occurrence of this stone is interesting 
because it was in a locality that many experts 
regarded as a place of meagre possibilities, as 
compared with the steadily producing mines at 
Kimberley. Diamonds bad, indeed, been found in 
both the alluvial along the Vaal River and in allu- 

The Diamond 


^|m1 and in pipes at Rietfontein, near Pretoria. 
The properties of the Transvaal Miuing Com- 
pany, now the Montrose, were discovered in 
1898, as were also those of the Schuller Com- 
pany; both producing diamonds in profitable 
quantity, althoagh not comparal)ly with the 
mines at Kiniberley. The Premier (Transvaal) 
Diamond Mining Company was registered on 
Deceml>er 1, 1902, with a capital of £80,000, so 
that it bad been in existence but alxiut two years 
when it gave the world its record diamond. 
The Boer War interfered with the development 
of the mines in tlie Transvaal. During the 
year 1899 fonr companies were registered. After 
the occupation of the Transvaal by the British, 
forty-eight companies were registered in the 
years 1903 and 1903 with an aggregate capital 
of nearly £2,000,000 sterling. 

»The new Premier mines are discussed by Mr. 
irdner F. Williams in his The Diamond Mines 
of South Africa, in which he expresses doubt 
that the rich alluvial diggings which resulted 
from the open works initiated there betoltened 
rich diamond bearing pipes of blue ground. Al- 
though the reports of the company allowed a 
large total yield for tbe number of loads of 
ground sent to the washing machines, it ia 

56 A Book of Precious Stones 

pointed oot that the gronnd sent was sorted 
ground, while that upon which Kimberley statis- 
tics are based was cot. Mr. Williams stated: 

The average value of the diamonds per carat for 
eleven mouths was 27b. 4d. The quality of the 
diamonds in the Pretoria District is poor, the per- 
centage of bort and rubbish being abnormally 
great Valued on the same basis, diamonds from 
the Pretoria District are worth only about fifty- 
four per cent, of those from De Beers and Kim- 
berley mines. 

It is always the unexpected that happens in 
diamond-seeking. The premises of Mr. Wil- 
liams and the other experts, who may from per- 
sonal interest have been subconsciously inclined 
to make comparisons between Kimberley and 
Transvaal mines unfavourable to the latter, 
however sound and scientific, held forth small 
encouragement to expect great things from the 
new Premier mines; which, after all, have pro- 
duced a single gem that outshines anything that 
the Kimberley mines ever produced. 

Until its sun was eclipsed by the revelation 
of the Cullinan Diamond, the largest diamond 
which the earth has given to man was the 
Escelsior, which was ultimately named the Ju- 
bilee in honour of the celebration of the sixtieth 

The Diamond 


^^■nniTersary of the accesBion of the late Qneen 
^H^ictoria. The Excelsior-Jubilee wan discovered 
^Bn the Jagersfontein mine in the Orange River 
Bcolony, June 30, 1893. The lucky Kaffir who 
discovered it was rewarded with about $2500 in 
money, and a horse equipped with a saddle and 
bridle. The rough stooe weighed 971% carats, 
measured two and one-half inches in length, 
two inches in breadth, and one inch in thick- 
ness. Like the Cullinan Diamond, its predeces- 
sor had a fault that prevented its becoming a 
single gem; this was a black spot in the centre 
which made it necessary to cleave it, as the 
Callinan was cleaved. The larger portion was 
cat into an absolutely perfect brilliant, weigh- 
^^iDg 239 international carats of 205 milligrams 
^HQid measuring one and five-eighths inches in 
^Hength, one and three-eighths in breadth, and 
one inch in depth. The Escelsior-Jubilee is a 
bine-white stone of the purest water and in all 
its qualities approximates perfection. This dia- 
mond's predecessor in holding the world's record 

for weight and size, in the rough, was the 

^■P Great Mogul" which is supposed to have 

^Hveighet) 787^0 carats. The history of this stone 

^^ia obscure and so tainted with tradition that the 

references to it in the various stories of the 

$8 A Book of Precious Stones 

great diamonds of the world are of doabtfnl 

The romance of gem history ia well illoatrated 
by the accepted account of that acme of fine 
diamond qualities, the Regent or Pitt diamond. 
Mr. Ludwig Nissen, a New York authority on 
gems and who talks and writes in an interest- 
ing way about them, offers the following nar- 
rative aa authentic: 

The Pitt Diamond, afterward called the " Regent," 
was found by a slave in the Parteal mines, on the 
Eistua in India, in the year 1701. The story goes 
that, to secure bis treasure, he cut a hole in the 
calf of his leg and concealed it, one account says 
in the wound itself, another in the bandages. As 
the stone weighed 410 carats before it was cnt, 
the last version of the method of concealment is, 
no doubt, the correct one. The Blave escaped with 
his property to the coast. Unfortunately for him- 
self, and also for the peace of mind of his con- 
fidant, be met an English skipper whom be tmsted 
with his secret. It is said be offered the diamond 
to the mariner in return for his liberty, which waa 
to he secured by the skipper carrying him to a 
free country. But it seems probable that he sup- 
plemented this with a money condition as well, 
otherwise the skipper's treattnent of the poor 
creature is as devoid of reason as it is of hu- 
manity. The English skipper, professing to accept 
the slave's proposals, took him on board his ahip. 
and having obtained possession of the gem, flung 

The Diamond 


^Vshe slave into the sea. He afterwards sold the 
diamond to a prominent dealer for a thousand 
poands sterling, squandered the money in dissipa- 
tioD, and finally, in a fit of delirium tremens and 

itvmorse, hanged himself. 
[ The dealer sold it in February, 1702, to Thomaa 
BPitt, Governor of Fort St. George, and great- 
Grandfather of the illustrious English statesman, 
Rpilliam Pitt, for the sum of £20,400. Pitt had the 
Mone cut and polished at a cost of £5000, but the 
c'eavage and dust obtained in the cutting returned 
to him the handsome &um of £1I>,000. In 1717 he 
Bold it to the Duke of Orleans, Regent of France, 
during the minority of King Louis XV., for the 
■am of £135,000; so that be must have netted a 
profit of nearly £125,000 on bis venture. 

Later, in the inventory of the French crown 
jewels, drawn up in 1791, it was valued at 
12,000,000 francs, or |2,400,000. Soon afterwards, 
daring the " Paris Commune," it was, with other 
valuable jewels, stolen and buried in a ditch to 
prevent its recovery. One of the robbers, however, 
OQ a promise of a full pardon, later revealed its 
hidiag-place, and it was found. All of the criminals 
were sent to the scaffold, except the one who had 
tnmed informer. 

The recovery of the " Regent " is claimed to have 
helped to put the first Napoleon npon the throne 
of France, by having enabled him, through pledg- 
ing it to the Dutch government, to raise sufficient 
funds to make a success of the Marengo campaign. 
I^ince its redemption from the Dutch government 
s served as an ornament in the pommel of the 
rat Emperor's sword, and has ever been the most 

6o A Book of Precious Stones 

cosspictioiis gem of the crown jewels of Prance. 
It now qaietl; rests to meet the wondering eyes 
of the world's tourists in the Galerie d'Apollon in 
the Lonvre, Paris. 

Though a rich and valuable treasure, the "Pitt" 
or "Regent" has unques lion ably been the cause of 
more mieerj than joy. It sent the first dishonest 
holder to a watery grave, the second to the rope, and 
the third, which consisted of several, to the guillo- 
tine; though it also restored the fortunes of 8n 
ancient Knglish family, which subseqnently gave to 
England her most distinguished statesman, and ia 
said to have helped in the creation of an empire 
and in the making of one of the world's most 
famous character!. 

The moat recently discovered diamond field 
that holds forth promise of an output sufficient 
to affect the world's market (or diamonds is In 
Germany's colonial possessions in southwest 
Africa, and if it results in great wealth for the 
Fatherland it will be warmly welcomed as a 
compensation in part for the millions that Ger- 
many's exploitation of the region has cost, 
chiefly because of intractable warring natives. 
The new field is near Ltlderitz Bay, and a 
remarkable feature is that the diamonds are 
found separately in a coarse sand. Twelve of 
the best stones among the first found were sent 
as a gift to Emperor William by his loyal sot^ 

^Qects, the < 

The Diamond 


ts, the colonists. Never before was the mar- 
keting of precions stones so carefully planned 
in advance of their production. The output will 
be strictly limited, following the policy of the 
English Syndicate, and the mining will be closely 
regulated by the German government. The an- 
nual product is expected to reach about 140,000 
carats. The syndicate is reported to be com- 
posed of representatives of leading German 
banks and various combinations of speculative 
investors in diamond corporation shares; among 
lem are the Lenz-Stauch-Nissien group, the 

Tlin Commercial Co., and Kohnauskop group. 
The last is of minor importance and is con- 
trolled by Englishmen. It is agreed that all 
stones are to be sent to Ltideritz Ray, wliere 
they will be taken by the syndicate. The com- 
panies that deliver will receive at once a part 
payment to cover cost of mining. The stones 
will be weighed, packed, and sent to Berlin 
under tbe owners' names, where they will be 
sorted and sold and owners credited with the 

No definite arrangements have been made to 
efltablish a German diamond market. It seems 
Improbable that either Hanau or Frankfort will 
be considered. Berlin seems to meet all the 


A Book of Precious Stones 

vertically. The specific gravity of the trana- 
parent flawless beryl is 2.73, usually 3.69 to 
2.70; hardness, 7.5 to 8; brittle; cleavage indis- 
tinct; fracture uneven to conchoidal; lustre 
vitreous, sometimes i-esinous. Beryl colours 
include emerald green to pale green, pale 
blue, pale yellow, honey, wine and citrine yel- 
low, white, and pale rose-red. Pleochriam is 
unusually distinct, sometimes strong, in the 
emerald especially, which through the dichfoi- 
scope reveals two different shades of green. 

Beryl includes the emerald, aquamarine, go- 
shenite, and davidsonite. The differences are 
principally in colour. 

Beryl is a silicate of the metals alnminiam 
and beryllium, containing the oxide alumina in 
small amount, which is, however, a more im- 
portant constituent in corundum, spinel, and 
chrysoberyl. There is some variation in beryl 
from different localities; the chemist Lewy, who 
analysed the beautiful emerald beryl that is 
found at Muzo in Colombia, South America, 
found: silica, 67.85; alumina, 17.95; beryllia, 
12.4; magnesia, 0.9; soda, .07; water, 1.66; and 
organic matter 0.12, besides a trace of chromic 
oxide. An analysis of a specimen of aquama- 
rine from Adun-CUaloD Id Siberia by Penfield 



inlted in: silica, 66.17; alumina, 20.39; 
berjilia, 11.50; ferrona oxide, 0.69; Boda, 0.24; 
water, 1.14, and a trace of Hthia. 

The only acid which will attack beryl, so far 
as has been discovered, is hydrofluoric acid. 
Before the blowpipe beryl becomeB white, cloudy, 
and fuses, but only with difficulty, at the edges 
to a white blebbj? glass. 

Beryl, like all other hexagonal crystals, is 
bi-refringent, bat only to a small extent. The 
beauty of beryl, therefore, depends not upon a 
play of prismatic colours, but upon unusually 
strong lustre and a fine body-colour. The 
bright grass-green beryl is the emerald ; the pale 
varieties are styled precious or noble beryl. 
Afjuamarine is pale-blue, bluish-green, of" yellow- 
ish-blue; the yellowish-green variety is called 
aquamarine-chrysolite; jewellers call the yellow 
variety beryl and the pure golden-yellow golden 
beryl. The dichroism of all transparent vari- 

ies of beryl can often be discerned with the 
unaided by the dichroiscope; this property 
osually suffices to clearly distinguish beryl 
from any imitations. A curious characteristic 
of the emerald beryl is that its colour is by no 
means always uniformly distributed through the 
body of the stone; the different coloured por- 

66 A Book of Precious Stones 

tions may occar in layers or irregularly; when 
in layers the layers are tisually perpendicolar 
to the faces of the prisms. 

The high esteem in which choice emeralds are 
held and the high cost of this gem are due in 
great part to the rarity with which a gem ap- 
proximating perfection occurs. Host of the 
grass-green beryl crystals are cloudy and dull; 
these disqualificatioDs are due to Assures and 
cracks, but also to inflnitesimally small en- 
closures of foreign matter, either fluid or 
solid, such as scales of mica. When clouded 
by fissures emeralds are called by jewellers 
" mossy." 

A "perfect" (approximately of course) em- 
erald-beryl stone is worth nearly, sometimes 
fully, as much as a fine natural ruby and more 
than a diamond — that is, a stone of one carat 
or thereabouts, — while large stones are so rare 
that they bring fancy prices out of all propor- 
tion to their size. The average emerald beryl 
fit for cutting is bnt a small stone. Tradition 
and unscientific accounts tell of phenomenally 
large emeralds, but one of the largest and finest 
actually known to exist belongs to the Duke of 
Devonshire; this is a natural crystal, measur- 
ing two inches across the basal plane, and . 


Emeralds 67 

ligha 8 9/10 onncea, or 1350 earats ; in colour, 
transparency, and stmctore it is almost with- 
out a fault. This fine stone was found in tiie 
emerald mines at Mozo in Colombia, Soutli 
America. Another large crystal known belongs 
to the Czar of Russia; its measurements are 
reported to be twenty-five centimetres (nearly ten 
inches ) in length and twelve centimetres in 

The character of each piece of the rough beryl 
placed in the hands of the lapidary decides 
what cut shai] be applied to an emerald. Small 
stones are usually cut as brilliants or rosettes, 
while the large ones are sometimes cut as a sim- 
ple table stone, or more generally step-cut with 
brilliant facets on the upper portion. Cut gems 
of good colour and transparency are mounted 
in an open setting; paler stones were formerly, 
in Europe, reinforced with a green foil beneath 
them, while fissured or faulty stones were 
mounted in an encased setting with tbe bottom 
blackened. As natural crystals of beryl are 
large the gems are often extracted from the 
mass by expert and skilful artisans who saw the 
crystals Into the desirable sizes. 

The emerald beryl might be truly said to be 
a precious stone of strong individuality, for, 


A Book of Precious Stones 

besides its cbaracteristic of an aneven and ir- 
regular distribution of colour, it is unique geo- 
logically, for it occurs exclusively in its primary 
situation, that is, in tbe rock in wbicb it waa 
formed. It is one of tbe minerals cbaracteris- 
tic of crystalline schists, and is frequently 
found embedded in mica schists and similar 
rocks. The magnificent beryls found at Muzo, 
Colombia, however, are an exception ; there the 
emeralds are embedded in calcite veins in lime- 
stone. Kmeralds are never found in gem 
gravels, like diamonds, rubies, sapphires, and 
other precious stones. 

Tbe ancient source of the emerald was Ethi- 
opia, but the locality is unknown. From upper 
Egypt, near the coast of the Red Sea and south 
of Kosseir, came the first emeralds of historic 
commerce. There is a supposition that the 
emerald beryl was first introduced commercially 
into Europe just prior to the seventeenth cen- 
tury from South America. Emeralds bad been 
found before this, however, in tbe wrappings of 
Egyptian mummies and in the ruins of Pompeii 
and Herculaneum. Ancient Egyptian emerald 
mines on the west coast of the Red Sea were 
rediscovered about 1820 by a French explorer, 
Cailliaud, on an expedition organised I^, 



Mehemet Ali Pasha; the implements fonnd there 
date back to the time of Sesostris (1650 B.C.}. 
Ancient inscriptions tell that Greek miners were 
employed there in the reign of Alexander the 
Great; emeralds presented to Cleopatra, and 
bearing an engraved portrait ot the beautiful 
Egyptian queen, are assumed to have been taken 
from these mines. Cailliaud, under permission 
Mebemet Ali, reopened the mines, employiog 
ian miners, but, it is supposed because 
'tmly stones of a poor quality were found, the 
work was soon and suddenly given up. 

The Spanish conquistadores found magnifi- 
MDt emeralds in the treasure of both Peru and 
ileiico, but none are now found in those coun- 
tries. An immense quantity of emeralds, many 
of them maguiflccnt, and a large proportion of 
which are probably still in existence in Europe, 
was sent to Spain from Pern. The only place 
in the new world that the Spanish found 
emeralds by prospecting for them in the earth, 
was in Colombia or New Granada; perhaps the 
gems of the Aztec sovereigns and the locas came 
from thcra 

The Spaniards first learned of the existence 
of the Colombian emeralds on March 3, 1537, 
through a gift of emeralds by the Indians, who, 


A Book of Precious Stones 

at the same time, pointed out the locality from 
which they were talien ; this spot, Somondoco, 
is now being mined by an English corporation, 
although only second-class stones have been 
found there by these modern emerald miners. 
Muzo, where the present supply of the world's 
finest emeralds is mined, is about one hundred 
miles distant in the eastern Cordilleras of the 
Andes on the east side of the Rio Magdalena 
in its northward course. The only other local- 
ity of importance where emerald beryls are now 
found is about fifty miles east of Ekaterinburg 
in the Ural Mountains, Siberia, where UraJian 
chrysoberyl, or alexandrite, is found. The 
grass-green beryl is also found in an almost in- 
accessible locality in tbe Salzburg Alps. 

Fine emeralds have been found in the United 
States, the most notable locality at Stony Point 
in Alexander Coanty, North Carolina, but the 
supply at this place seems to be exhausted. 

The name "emerald" applied indiscriminately 
to green transparent, translucent, and even 
opaque stones, complicates, to the inexpert, 
everything about the emerald question; for in- 
stance, it was long assumed that emeralds came 
from Brazil and green stones were called " Bra- 
zilian emeralds.'* There is no authentic proof 



9iat a true emerald was ever foaod in Brazil, 
Ad it in supposed that green tourmaliues found 
3iere account for the " Brazilian emerald " 
*inyth. In ancient times the name emerald was 
applied to green jasper, chrysocolla, malachite, 
and other green minerals. There is still a cus- 
tom of calling stones other than beryl "emerald," 
with an explanatory prefix. Thus, Oriental 
uerald is green corundum; " lithia emerald " is 
kiddenite, a green mineral of the pyroxene group 
icurring associated with the emerald beryl in 
f Horth Carolina. "Emerald-copper" is dioptase, 
iie beautiful green silicate of copper. Among 
3ie green minerals sometimes sold under the 
me of emerald are: the green corundum, de- 
■inantoids, or green garnets, hiddenite, diopside, 
alexandrite, green tourmaline, and sometimes 
chpysolite and dioptase. These minerals are all 
of higher specific gravity than beryl and all can 
be distinguished from beryl emeralds by tests 
to the scientific gem expert. 



TN its parity, liquid beauty, and charm of 
^ romantic and poetical association the pearl 
— aristocrat of gems — leads even its peers of 
the highest rank, the diamond, emerald, mby, 
and sapphire. The sea-gem has throughout all 
recorded time formed the fitting necklace of 
feminine royalty and famous beauty; the state 
decorations of dusky Oriental potentates and 
their principal treasures have been pearls. From 
the ocean's bed and the turgid streams of mid- 
land North America, from almost anywhere 
that is the habitat of the oyster or the humble 
mussel come these pale, lustrous treasures that 
may prove to be almost priceless. The exist- 
ence and recognition of the beauty of the pearl 
as a personal ornament and treasure is ondoabt- 
edly prehistoric on every continent. The dis- 
coverers and conquistadores from old Spain 
found quantities of thera in the western Indies, 
on the Spanish Main, in Florida, Mexico, and 

The Pearl 


^^Pera ; the mound-builders of North America 
poHfieased them; in the far East they were 
cherished centuries before the then Western 
world of Earope knew them; there is said to 
be a word meaning a pearl in a Chinese dic- 
tionary four thousand years old, and who knows 
how old is their presence in India. 

Pearls were in the jewel caskets of Egypt's 
Ptolemies; and the first jewel mentioned in the 
most ancient decipherable and translatable writ- 
ings extant is the pearl, and its identity is un- 
questioned, because the gem of the sea is solitary 
among jewels and is not to be confounded with 
the hard mineral gems which, even to-day, with 
all the advance in scientific knowledge, are con- 
stantly becoming mixed in the minds of men. 
Prom written records the modern ken of pearls 
extends back about twenty-three hundred years, 
and we hear of them in the writings of Pliny, 
the indefatigable investigator and disseminator 
of what he believed to be facts about almost 
everything in nature, who four hundred years 
later gathered together the knowledge of his 
day about [)earls and included it in his volumi- 
nous literary grist. 

In the technical literature of the United 
Btatee National Museum, the pearl is coldly 


A Book of Precious Stones 

and remorselessly comprehended under the gen- 
eric term "carbonate of lime" along with the 
beautiful but less valued coral, which is also a 
product of the sea; and marble, which concerns 
architects and sculptors, more than gem fan- 
ciers ; and calcife and aragonite, which are 
varieties of satin spar and far down in the gem 
stone scale of hardness. It seems almost like 
desecration to reduce the lustrous pearl of 
peerless beauty and royal and romantic associa- 
tions to the concrete mineralogical base of 
carbonate of lime; but thus are the insistent 
requirements of the mineralogists conserved. 
Therefore, pearls are concretions of carbonate of 
lime found in the shells of certain species of 
molluscs. An irritation of the animal's mantle 
promotes an abnormal secretory process, the 
cause of the irritation being tlie introduction 
into the shell of some minute foreign substance, 
sometimes a grain of sand. 

The lustre of pearls is nacreous, which means 
resembling mother-of-pearl, a lustre due to the 
minute undulations of the edges of alternate 
layers of carbonate of lime and membrane. The 
lustre of some pearls exists only on the surface; 
the outer surface of others may be dull and the 
inner lustrous. The specific gravity of the pearl 

The Pearl 


2.5 to 2.7; hardness, 2.5 to 3.5. The shape 
ies and the range of size and weight ia 
at. The smallest pearl in commerce is less 
an the head of a pin; the largest pearl known 
is in the Beresford Hope collection in the 
Hnseum at South Kensington, Ijondon. Its 
gth is two inches and circumference four and 
half inches. It weighs three ounces (1818 

Altliongh the whiteness of the pearl is C(m- 
stantly UKcd for comparison, pearls range in 
colour from an opaque white through pink, 
yellow, salmon, fawn, purple, red, green, brown, 
blue, black, and in fact every colour and sev- 
eral shades of each; some pearls are also iri- 
descent. The colour and lustre are generally 
that of the interior shell sarface against which 
the pearl was formed. 

The beauty and value of the pearl, in brief, 
id upon colour, texture, or " skin " trans- 
rency or "water," lustre, and form; pearls 
most desired are round or pear-shaped, without 
blemish, and having the highest degree of lustre. 
The queen of existing pearls is La Pellegrina 
now in the Museum of Zosima, Moscow, Russia. 
Pellegrina is perfectly round and of an 
rivalled lustre. It weighs 112 grains. 

tue pc 

^L The 


A Book of Precious Stones 

While individual pearls or strands of them 
may be worth a prince's ransom, their beaoty 
and value are not immutable; pearls may de- 
teriorate with age or be sullied by the action 
of gases, vapours, or acids, and the known 
methods for their restoration to their original 
appearance and value are not always success- 
ful. Pine pearls should be carefully wiped 
with a clean soft cloth after they have been 
worn or exposed, and kept wrapped in a similar 
fabric in a tightly closed casket. 

Pearls are found in nearly all bivalves with 
nacreous shells, but the principal supply is de- 
rived from a comparatively few families, led by 
the Aviculidie, Unionidje, and Mytllidfe. The 
first group includes the pearl oyster of the In- 
dian and Pacific oceans, from which has come 
the bulk of the world's pearls; the second in- 
cludes the unio, or fresh-water mussel of North 
America; and the third is a family of conchi- 
ferons molluscs, mostly marine, the typical gema 
being Mytilius edulis, or true mussel, which has 
a wedge-shaped cell and moors itself to piles 
and stones by a strong coarse hyssus of flaxy or 
silky-looking fibres. The distribution of these 
mollascB is world-wide. 

" In all ages, pearls have been the social 

The Pearl 


^lb>ignia of rank among the highly civilised," 
writes W. K. Cattelle in his atandard book The 
Pearl. Firat lavishly used by the princes of the 
East for the adornment of their royal persona, 
as the course of empire trended westward the 
pearl followed the flag of the conquerors, and 
thus, in time, as Eome's power and affluence 
grew into world-control, her treasure of pearls 
grew to vast proportions and became identified 
with the social eminence and arrogance of the 
Cffsars and patrician Rome. To-day the market 
for the best in pearls of recent finding, as for 
all new products of precious stones, or for 
famous jewels, whose o^iTiers' changing fortunes 
bring tbem to the parting, is within the new 
regime of Chesus represented by the multi- 
millionaires of the United States. Tbe world's 
best buyers of jewels are not always as willing 
to have their princely expenditures known as is 
generally believed, and the names of some of 
America's heaviest purchasers of gems have not 
been revealed by the dealers. It is authori- 
tatively stated that the finest single strand of 
large pearls in existence was recently acquired 
by a Western millionaire of the United States. 
The strand is composed of thirty-seven pearls 
ranging from eighteen to fifty-two and three- 

A Book of Precious Stones 

quarter grains each, the latter being the largest 
central pearl. The pearls combined weigh 979% 
grains, and the strand is said to have cost ita 
: f 400,000. 

ALTHOUGH we place the ruby foartb among 
the precions stones, bo few are the snperior 
rubies in commerce, or that the world sees, that 
when a perfect ruby of the weight of ten or more 
carats enters the market, it brings a price three 
times aa great as does a diamond of the same 
■ The Dativea of India indiscriminately apply 
rate name " ruby " to all coloured precious 
stones, and it is the habit of American dealers 
in precious stones to be almost as general in 
calliDg various red gems rubies, although they 
do distinguish by calling the corundum ruby 
" Oriental ruby." This being a book for every- 
iine, other red stones conimouly or even occa- 
sionally appearing in the jewelry trade and 
'ulled by merchants rubies will be compre- 
lipnded and described in this chapter, leading 
with the corundum reality, which is beyond 
Corundam crystallises in the hexagonal sys- 


A Book of Precious Stones 

tens in six-sided prisma aod pyramids, the 
crystals frequently being rough and rounded; 
hardness 9; brittle; specific gravity 3.9 and np- 
wayds to 4.16; lustre adamantine to vitreous; 
sometimes the lustre is pearly on the basal 
plane ; and occasionally there ia exhibited a 
bright, opalescent, aix-rayed star in the direc- 
tion of the vertical axis. The colour range is 
almost unlimited, blue corundum being sapphire. 
The strongly coloured varieties are pleochroic. 
Corundum is sometimes phosphorescent, with a 
rich red colour. The red-coloured corundum or 
ruby varies from a rose to a deep carmine, the 
desideratum being a " pigeon's blood " red, and 
the same crystal will sometimes reveal different 
colours. Like its brother in the noble corun- 
dum family, the ruby is a i>eer of the realm 
of precious stones, and second only to the 
throne of the sovereign diamond. 

In chemistry, corundum is pure alumina, the 
oxide of the metal aluminum, composed of 53.2 
per cent, of the metal and 46.8 per cent, of 
oxygen. Natural corondum is probably never 
chemically pure; the inclusions of foreign ele- 
ments, sometimes hut the merest traces, impart 
the colour that makes the gem. When foreign 
matter is present in large proportion coroudma. 


impoBBible for gem purposes, altliougb of 
!at value induHtriallj; inferior trauBlucent 
:imeD8 serve for pivot supports of watches 

id other delicate maciiiues and the opaque an 
abraBive; thus common corundum is used 
Tor cutting and polishing gem minerals lower in 
the scale of hardness than the diamond, a variety 
of it being the common compact black emery 

pwder used for sharpening and polishing in 

lechanical and domestic uses, and familiar to 

A chemical analysiH of a fine specimen of an 

j.** Oriental ruby," of the approved rich deep red 

was as follows : alumina, 97.32 ; iron 

;ide, 1.09; silica, 1.21; in all, 99.62. The ex- 
tent to which crystallography goes and its fine, 
yet plain, distinctions, in determining gem 
minerals, are illustrated by the marked crystal- 
Jographic differences between the ruby and the 
sapphire, which differ but slightly in chemical 
composition, having the same constituents but 
different proportions; thns one typical sapphire 
analysed entire exhibited ahiniina, 97.51; ircin 
oxide, 1.89; and silica,; in all, 100.20. 
The forms of corundum generally occur in 
two different habits represented by the ruby 
and the -sapphire; in the former the prism 


A Book of Precious Stones 

predominates and in tlie latter the bexagoual 

Although corundum is second to the diamond 
in poiot of hardoess, it in approached much 
more closely by the minerals next below it in 
the scale of hardness, than it approaches the 
eminent and reserved diamond. 

Pure corundum has a high specific gravity 
ranging from 3.94 to 4.08, and this great dens- 
ity makes the specific gravity test in distinguish- 
ing it from other stones both easy and 
important. The differently coloured varieties 
have not been proved to vary in this particular. 
Acids will not attack corundum nor is it fusible 
before the blowpipe. Some specimens when 
heated in the dark are beautifully phosphorescent 
Corundum, by friction, develops positive elec- 
tricity, which it retains for some time. The 
lustre of corundum and its fire approach these 
qualities iu the diamond, but the lustre is 
vitreous instead of adamantine, although it is 
very durable. Corundum is optically uniaxial 
and strongly doubly refracting, but the dis- 
persion produced is slight and it is, therefore, 
incapable of emitting flashes of prismatic 
colours like the diamond. Coloured corundum 
crystals are dichroic and the deeper the colour i 




■e more pronounced the dicbroism. A con- 
stant characteristic of coloured oornndum gems 
is that tbey are as beautiful by artificial light 
as by daylight. 

Tliere are at least nine varieties of corandam 
u«ed as gems and familiar to nearly all jewel- 
lers; the coloured varieties, other than the red 
ruby and blue sapphire, are named for the gems 
of other mineral species that they resemble in 
colour, only with the diatinguisiiing prefix of 
"Oriental." The arbitrary names and colours 
are: Ituby ("Oriental ruby"), red; Sapphire 
(" Oriental sapphire "), blue; Leuco-sapphire 
(WTiite sapphire), colourless; "Oriental aqua- 
marine," light bluish-green; "Oriental 
erald," green; "Oriental chrysolite," yellowish- 
jfreen ; " Oriental topaz," yellow ; " Oriental 
^Juacinth," aurora red; "Oriental amethyst, 

^^prbe colour-varieties of corundnm are found 
in irregular grains and as crystals embedded in 
some old crystalline rock, as granite or gneiss. 
The gem -varieties frequently occur as secondary 
contact minerals, which contact with a molten 
igneous rock has developed in limestone. These 
embedded crystals are frequently liberated by 
Lbe weathering and uncovering of such rocks, 


A Book of Precious Stones 

and then tlie crystalR are found in the debris in 
the beds of streams. 

Red corundum is supposed to be identical 
with the anthrax nientionwl by Theophrastus 
and to have been termed carbuncle during the 
Middle Ages. The colour-tone of the ruby 
varies greatly, and the presence of deep, intense 
tones of red causes the term " masculine " to 
be applied to a gem, while the paler tints sag- 
gest the term " feminine." Rubies range from 
a delicate pink tint through pale rose red to 
reddish-white, pure red, carmine red, or blood 
red. A tinge of blue or violet is frequently 
discernible in these shades. The desired tone 
in ruby colour was so aptly compared by the 
Burmese to the blood of a freshly-killed pigeon 
that the term " pigeon-blood " is the accepted 
qualification for the colour of the choicest and 
costliest ruby gems. The colouring is not al- 
ways uniform, there sometimes occurring alter- 
nate layers of colours and colourless stone; 
a process of heating usually renders the colour 
uniform. The ruby does not lose its colour 
when heated, and hence it is assumed that the 
colouring matter is not organic, as in that case 
it would be destroyed, but is probably due 
to a trace of chromium. A graduated JncreaK 



f heat will not fractiire tlie stone, whlcli upon 
cooling becomefi white, then green, anil finally 
regains its original red colour. The ruby is 
dicliroic according to the direction in which it 
ia men, and in cutting it this must be taken 
into consideration; the table — ^the largest facet 
surface — should be aligned with the basal pianos 
of the crystal, in order to exhibit the greatest 
possible depth of colour. The diehroiam of the 
ruby is one of its certain distiactions from 
gpinel. garnet, and other red utonea whifh 
yetallise in the cubic system and therefore are 
; singly refracting. 

Rubies sometimes show on their basal planes, 
I on a convex surface which corresponds to the 
, a six-rayed star of gleaming light; these 
called asteriated rubies, " star-rubiea," or 
fcby cat'8-eye. 

l8o valuable are flawless rubies of good colour, 
wben they ascend much above a carat in 
height their prices depend to a considerable ex- 
tent on fancy. A three-carat ruby of desirable 
gnalities is a rarity, while three-carat diamonds 
( common. Although nothing will definitely 
Aicate what a fine ruby of three carats and 
^ward might bring in the open market, yet 
, George F. Kunz appraised a fine ruby of 


A Book of Precious Stones 

9 5-16 carats at ^3,000, and Mr. E. W. Streeter, 
the LoHdoD jeweller and author, records a 
purchase price of about ¥50,000 for a cut ruby 
of 32 5/16 carats. 

The common faults of rubies are lack of 
clearness; the presence of " clouds," also termed 
silk, especially in light-coloured stones; patches 
which resemble milk ("chalcedony patches"); 
internal cracks and fissures ("feathers"); and 
the colour being unequally distributed. 

From the beginning of its history the main 
supply of the beautiful ruby gem has been from 
a small territory in upper Burma, whence, also, 
have come those of the finest quality. The centre 
of this mining region and the ruby trade is the 
town of Mogok, ninety miles north-north-east 
of Mandalay. The mining district ranges from 
four tbousand to nearly eight thousand feet 
above sea-level, hut, despite its altitude, this 
forest-covered region proves unhealthy for Eu- 
ropeans. The principal mines are in two valleys 
in which are the towns of Katliay and Kyatpyen. 

Rubies and the minerals with which they are 
associated, such as spinel, are here found in a 
mother-rock of white, dolomitic, granular lime- 
stone or marble, of the upper Carboniferous 
age. These rocks have been altered by contact 

^H with n 




with molten igneous material which recrjatal- 
Used the calcium carbonate as pure calcite, 
wliile the imparities became the ruby and ita 
associated minerals. The precious stones are 
but occasionally found in the rock it«elf, but in 
aD adjacent ground, which the miners call 
'' byon," where the gem stones have weathered 
out ; in the neighbouring river alluvium are 
found ruby particles, called ruby-sand. Prior 
to 1886 the rubies were mined by the Burmese 
with the primitive methods that had been in 
vogue for centuries, but when, in that year, 
Burma became part of the British Empire, the 
work was taken np first by an Anglo-Italian 
and then by an English company, which paid 
the Indian Government for this concession of 
mining rights the equivalent of about $125,000 

Siam has long produced corundum rubies, but 
the gems are usually darker and inferior to the 
beautiful clear red stones from Burma. The 
principal mines are controlled by an English 
company. A few rubies Lave come from the 
gem-sands of Ceylon; a few have been found 
in Mysore and Madras, India; and incon»ider- 
able products in Afghanistan and Australia. 
Buhies have been found in North Carolina and 

A Book of Precious Stones 

Montana in the United States, but the producta 
are not of commercial importance. 

Corundum rubies formed of rubj material by- 
artificial methods have attracted attention and 
are cutting some figure in the jewelrj trade, 
but they are not and can never he the peers of 
natural rubies; man's ingenuity and science 
cannot compete with Nature in the gem busi- 
ness. Artificial rubles are described in another 

Of the other Btones than corundum called 
" ruby," the only important ones are the vari- 
eties of spinel, which chemically is closely allied 
to corundum so that the red varieties of spinel 
might be regarded as cousins-german to the real 
ruby. The " Cape ruby " — so called in the 
jewelry trade — is pyrope garnet from the dia- 
mond-bearing rock of South Africa, and is 
described in its proper place — the chapter on 
the garnet Stones sometimes substituted for 
the ruby by dealers, or mistakenly called rubies, 
are red tourmaline, or rubellite, called " Siberian 
ruby"; rose topaz, called " Brazilian ruby "; and 
hyacinth or jacinth, which is ziTcon, and is de- 
Bcribed in the chapter on " Semi-Precious Stones 
Occasionally Used." Spinel has perhaps a wider 
range of colour than almost any other mineral. 



^Bklt it will be considered here chiefly with re- 
gard to the red varieties approximating the 
eoloor of the ruby. Spinel is practically a 
magncsiam aluminate, consisting of alnmina, 
71.8%, and magnesia, 28.2%. The chief red 
Bliades are: deep red, Slam rnby and spinel 
ruby ; rose red, balas ruby ; yellow or orange red, 
rabicolle; violet red, almandine ruby. The na- 
t'nti name in India for spinel is " pomegranate." 
A slight knowledge of mineralogy should sufBce 
to distinguish the corundum ruby from its 
spinel distant relative, for the latter is less 
hard and of lower specific gravity, and different 
in crystallisation. Spinel is of about the hard- 
ness of topaz, or 8 in the Mobs scale, and its 
specific gravity is alwut 3.6. It crystallises in 
the isometric system and usually appears in the 
form of octahedrons. It is singly refracting, 
corundum doubly. Spinel is infusible before 
the blowpipe, but heating it will cause it to 
undergo several changes of colour, ultimately 
returning to its original hue, so that it might 
be termed the chameleon of gem minerals. With- 
out any design to substitute spinel for corundum 
rubles, spinel has its own deser\'ed value, and 
Us beauty and intrinsic worth deserve for it an 
iDcIaaioQ in the company of the high-class gems. 

90 A Book of Precious Stones 

It is interesting to note that spinel rnby is not 
only the relative of the patrician cornndam 
mby, but the poor relation dwells together with 
its wealthy relative in nature. Both rubies are 
found associated in the gem gravels of Ceylon, 
Siam, Australia, and Brazil, as well as in the 
crystalline limestone of upper Burma. Spinel 
rubies are found in quantity in Balakschan, 
Afghanistan, near the Biver Oxus; the name 
*' Balas ruby " is probably derived from Beloo- 
chistan, otherwise Balakschan. 



^APPHIBE, the stone of April, is tbe symbol 
of constancy, trnth, and virtue. Like tlie 
liby, it is cornnduni, and the name " sapphire " 
I generally applied to corundum of any colour 
IKcepting the red. More 8pecifica]ly, the name 
I applied to blue specimens, the desired tints 
"lieing royal blue, velvet blue, and cornflower 
blue. A characteristic of this variety of corun- 
dum is, that occasionally its colour effect by 
artificial light differs from that manifested 
in natural light, being generally less bril- 
liant. Dealers call the blue corundums " Ori- 
ental sapphires." It is one of the most an- 
of stones and its names differ but 
tlightly in the ancient languages, Chaldean, 
Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, from which the Eng- 
word is derived. Stones of darker colour 
! frequently termed male and those of lighter 
bades female. 
Higher specific gravity and a greater degree 

ga A Book of Precious Stones 

of hardness, besides the difference Id coluur, 
distinguish the sapphire from the ruby; other- 
wise the sapphire's chemical and physical char- 
acteristics are generally included in the 
description of corundum in the foregoing chap- 
ter, covering the red corundum and other red 
stones termed rubies. While the form of the 
sapphire crystal corresponds with that of the 
ruby, there is a difference in the habit of crys- 
tallisation; the prism and rhombohedron of the 
ruby, are replaced in the sapphire by the hex- 
agonal pyramid. The colouration of sapphires 
is frequently irregular; different portions of the 
same stone show different colours, and some- 
times the body of what would be a colourless 
sapphire shows blue patches; but as the blue 
colour vanishes when the stone is heated, such 
a stone, undesirable as a gem, can be rendered 
valuable by heating it until it becomes a clear 
white sapphire. Ttie colours of sapphire range 
from the white, colourless, or, so-called, '* Louco- 
sapphire " ; through the yellow, called " Oriental 
topaz"; and through various tints to the royal 
blue of the typical gem sapphire. Sometimes 
sapphires show different colours at their termi- 
nations, as greenish-blue at one end and blue at 
the other, or red and blue at the ends ; examples 

The Sapphire 


•ve been seen Uiat were blue at the ends and 
yellow in the middle. One famous tri-coloared 
sapphire is cat into a figure of the Chinese 
sage, Confucius; the head is colourlese, the 
lK»dy pale blue, and the legs yellow. Sapphires 
exhibit as many shades of blue as can be named. 
The rery darkest, almost black, is termed 
" inky "; pale " feminine " Btonea are termed 
"water-sapphires"; dark, yet very blue stones, 
are called " indigo-sapphires," " lynx-sapphire," 
or " cat-sapphire." The tone and transparency 
of the Btone are most important factors, and, 
provided they are present, the very dark shades 
are not disadvantages, although the " corn- 
flower " is the choicest. Besides the " corn- 
flower" colour, tones and tints are indicated 
by snch adjectives as " Berlin," " smalt," " grey- 
isb," and " greenish." The dichroism of the 
sapphire is nearly always apparent if the stone 
is viewed from an angle that reveals It, the blue 
appearing tinged with green or with violet The 
dichroism of the sapphire is, like that of the 
ruby, taken into account in producing the best 
effects in the cutting. In artificial light some 
specimens remain unchanged, while others be- 
rome darker, or, perhaps, change to a reddish, 
purple, or violet colour. Asterias or star- 



'X'HE amethyst is a species of quartji that ia 
* now of more artistic than intrinsic value, 
The native beauty of the purple stone is indis- 
putable. In folklore it has a prominent place 
as the natal stone of those horn tn the month 
of February, who, astrologically dwell in tha 
sign of Aries in the Zodiac, and are dominated 
hy the planet Mars. It is distinctively the pre- 
cious stone of tlie Bishop, and also, rather 
congruously, of Bacchus; and yet, despite ita 
appropriation hy these personages, respectively 
ecclesiastical and mythological, it is also used 
as an amulet believed to protect the wearer from 
the curse of excessive indulgence in stimuIatJnj 
beverages. The amethyst is tlie symbol of pore 
love; it is also the "soldier's stone"; it is thi 
stone appropriate for mourning, and thus, ii 
many ways it is invests with a strong sen- 
timental interest. The signet ring of Cleopatra 
was an amethyst, engraved with the figure ol 




, THE HEW '""■^ „ , 

The Amethyst 



ithras, a Persian deity, symbol of the Divine 
Idea, Source of Light and Life. From the ring 
of Edward the Confessor was talten the amethyst 
lat adorns the British crown, and this parti- 
ilar stone is, by tradition, imbued with the 
qaalities of a prophylactic against contagious 

There is an ancient myth that a beaatifal 
nymph was beloved and beset by Bacchus, who 
in her effort to escape the imperious wooing of 
her ardent lover, was aided by her patron god- 
dess and metamorphosed into an amethyst. 
Bacchus, balHed, in memory of his vanished 
ive, bestowed on the stone the colour of the 
rple wine he best loved, and registered a vow 
lat forevermore whoever would wear the ame- 
lyst should be pr&served from intoxication, no 
latter how extensive his libations. In metlieval 
limes the amethyst was a favourite amulet as 
preserver of the wearer in battle, and many 
pious crusader who nightly told his beads, 
ilied also upon the purple stone that hung as 
protective charm beside his rosary. The ame- 
iy«t was believed to be a good influence if 
tvom by persons making petitions to princes, 
and also to be a puissant preventive of hail- 
storms and locnsta. The association of the 


A Book of Precious Stones 

ametbjst with aacerdotal things is old and 
long, for it is the pious or episcopal gem, 
and regarded as imparting especial dignity and 
beauty to the property of the Roman Chnrch. 
The amethyst is sacred to St. Valentine, who is 
said to have always worn one. 

The word amethyst owes its root to the Greek 
word amethustoa, meaniog not drnnken, and 
also construed to mean a remedy for drunken- 
nesa Pliny, with customary quaintness, thought 
it prevented intoxication because it did not 
reach, although it approximated, the colour of 

Amethyst, a variety of quartz, plainly crys- 
talline, is called by Dana, amethystine quartz. 
Its colour, whicli is diffused throughout the crys- 
tals or affects only t"lieir summits, is a clear pur- 
ple or bluish- violet, and it is therefore sometimes 
called violet-quartz. The amethyst is of all de- 
grees of colour from the slightest tint to so 
dark as to be almost opaque. Not always uni- 
form, the colour is sometimes in spots and ia 
some crystals shades gradually from light to 
dark. The dark reddish-purple colour is moat 
highly prized; it has the advantage, too, of hold- 
ing its value under all circumstances, for in an 
artificial light, especially if containing yellow 

The Amethyst 


■rays, the pale stones lose their violet colour 

and become a dnll grey. Some deeply coloured 

amethysta from Maine change to a wine colour 

^Kfa artificial light, thus becomiDg even more 


^H The amethyst's best claims to perpetual popu- 
^Har appreciation are its beauty of colour and 
^Htfl adaptability as an ornameDt to harmonise 
^^■rith a costume colour scheme. In the develop- 
^Bpient of woman's discrimination in dress, she 
desires a jewel for every gown and ornaments 
for afternoon as well as for night, and for spe- 
cial occasions. For fabrics of pearl-grey, ame- 
thysts mounted id dalt silver should be in high 

^A good amethyst shonld be of a deep purple 
lour, perfectly transparent and throughout 
nniform in hue. Amethysts are distinctly di- 
chroic; they rank No. 7 in the Mohs scale of 
hardness; specific gravity is 2.6 to 2.7. The 
crystallisation of this quartz is in six-sided 
prisms terminating in pyramids. Lustre vitre- 
ous; cleavage none or distinct; fracture con- 
choidal, glassy. It is doubly refractive, the 
twin colours being reddish and bluish purple. 
Amethysts are usually cut step, while the fin^ 
■pecimens are cut brilliant. 

loo A Book of Precious Stones 

The chief sources of supply for amethysts are 
Brazil and the Ural Mountains, Siberia. The 
Siberian amethysts, accompanied by beryl and 
topaz, occur in cavities in granite; often they 
are found lying loose and sometimes very near 
the surface. Cavities in a black eruptive rock 
(melaphyre) are the hiding places of Home 
Brazilian amethysts, while others are found as 
pebbles in the river gravels with chryeoberyl and 
topaz as companion minerals. Gem amethysti 
are also found in gravel bearing other gems in 

In North America, a few of the finest spe- 
cimens of amethyst on record have been found 
in Oxford County, Maine. Other localities are 
Delaware and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania, 
and Haywood County, North Carolina. Crys- 
tallised amethyst in commercial quantities has 
been found at Thunder Bay on the north shore 
of Lake Superior. The crystals are highly 
coloured but not uniform or clear and few goo<I 
gems have been obtained there. 

Amethyst was formerly much more highly 
prized than now because of its scarcity. Be- 
sides the increased supply it has been imitated 
so convincingly as to impose upon all excepting 
gem experts. A celebrated amethyst necklace 





The Amethyst loi 

wned by Queen Charlotte of England, valned 
at $10,000, migiit not now be worth intrinsically 
|500. The exclusive charming violet colour of 
the amethyst will probably always insure a de- 
mand for the best qualities of this stone, and 
with a development of art in the treatmest and 
uses of precious stones and jewelry, the demand 
is likely to grow. 

Of all specimens of amethyst that appear in 

te market to-day, the Siberian stones so far 

OQtclass all competitors in richness and depth 

of their dark violet hue, that these beautiful 

gems mixed with others would be instantly se- 

;i|ected by the merest novice; so manifestly su- 

ior is their quality that, comparatively 

speaking, they alone are gems, and the only 

reason that their cost is not much greater than 

is, is because Nature has been generous in 

i quantity that she has permitted man to 

itract from her mineral treasure house. 


^^ORAL lias been used for persODal ornameD' 
^"^ tatioD, and as an article of commerce, from 
the earliest period recorded in writing. Popular 
to-day, as it Las almost always been— especially 
in the form of polished fragments, pierced and 
strung like beads, and less extensively in beads, 
spherical or oval — the moat desired, high grade 
of light rose-pink coral is becoming scarce, and 
those who gather it from the ocean's floor are 
anxiously seeking new sources of supply. At the 
present time coral is increasing in favoar and 
the demand for it is steadily growing. 

Coral — like the sea gem, the pearl, — is essen- 
tially carbonate of lime. Its structure is erected 
by a family of zoophytes, gelatinous marine ani- 
mals (not insects as is too often written) called 
polyps. The coral is secreted by a peculiar layer 
of the skin; it is the calcareous skeleton of the 
lowly organised animal, and gradually derelopa 



Ske the bones of vertebrates, and is not built 
Tip as bees build a honeycomb as is popularly 
believed. The pits or depressions on a branch 
of coral represent the places where the coral 
colonists once grew. Coral is a common sub- 
marine feature in low latitudes all around the 
globe, but the gem or precious coral, Corallium 
ruhruin, formerly called Vorallmm nobile. cornea 
almost exclusively from the Mediterranean Sea 
off the African, Corsican, and Sicilian coasts. 
A wild-rose pink is the particular shade most 
highly favoured. The Corallium ruhruin, the 
only species utilised and valued to any extent 
for jewelry, belon^jts to the family Gorgonidje 
of the group Alcyonaria. 

The skeleton of a colony of Corallium rubrum 
is found to be cemented firmly by a disc-shaped 
foot to any dense natural or foreign object on 
the sea bottom, as a stone, cannon-ball, bottle, 
or, as is recorded in one case of fact, a human 
skull. The branches seldom exceed a foot in 
length and an inch iu diameter. A curious 
characteristic of coral is, that it grows always 
perpendicular, or approximately, at a right 
angle to the surface to which it is attached— 

iownward, if its foothold is on the under face 

I a rock. 

I04 A Book of Precious Stones 

The colonies are usually from Bixty to one 
hundred feet beneath the sea's surface. 

Some expert authorities have fathered the as- 
sertion that about thirty years is required for 
eoral stock to develop into full size; yet the 
Sicilian coral bank is divided into ten sections, 
one of which is finished every year, and at the 
end of the decade the first bank yields full-sized 

Pietro Moncadi of Palermo, said to be the 
largest dealer in Italian coral, during a recent 
visit to New York, reported that the demand 
for high grade red coral leads the supply. Many 
beds off the Italian coasts are exhausted and 
there is much prospecting off Malta, Malabar, 
and East African coasts, at great expense and, 
so far, with very small reward. Signer Mon- 
cadi made the statement that the United States 
buys the finest red coral, and the producers who 
possess the highest grade have to seek no other 

The home of the coral industry is Italy, where 
there are about sixty work shops, with about 
BIX thousand employees. Torre del Greco is 
the centre of both the coral-fishing and the coral- 
working industries. The coral-workers pierce 
and string pieces of coral of all shapes and 



sizes. The beads are eplierical or egg-shaped— 
tb»? latter are called "olives." The handicraft 
of the Italian coral-workers includes carving of 
a high artistic order — the forms representing 
many natural objects — and the cutting of beauti- 
ful cameos. The coral-gatherers employ flue dis- 
tinctioD in denominating coral tints. Pure white 
is bianco, fresh pale flesh-red is pelle dc angelo; 
pale rose, rosa pallida; bright rose, rosa vico; 
these choicest tints are followed by " second 
colour," secondo colore; red, rosso; dark red, 
rosso sctiro: and, darkest of all reds curbonetto 
or ariscuro. 

The 8i»eciftc gravity of precious coral is 2.6 
to 2.7; hardness in Mohs's scale about 3-4. 
Coral is soft enough to be easily worked with 
a tile, edged tools, and on a lathe; it is too soft 
to take a high polish, but despite that dissimi- 
larity from the precious stones of whose com- 
pany it is a popular member, its fine colour 
BQstains its claim to beauty, and it highly 
deserves inclusioD in a book of gems. 

But little coral, comparatively, is mounted in 
Italy, the setting being done in the fashion in 
demand in the country where it appears in the 

welry trade. 

Jn the Orient coral is always in demand, with 

io6 A Book of Precious Stones 

India in the lead followed by Cbina and then 
Persia. The Chinese mandarins sometimes pay 
incredible sums for exceptionally fine coral 
buttons for their caps. 

Pieces of coral are used for rich and costly 
handles of parasols and umbrellas; the coral 
handle of an umbrella belonging to the Queen 
of Italy t)eing valued at nearly two thousand 
dollars. A coral necklace exhibited in 1880 at 
the International Fisheries Exhibition held at 
Berlin, was valued at nearly twenty-nine thou- 
sand dollars. In Italy the superstition that the 
wearing of coral is a protection against the evil 
eye, accounts for its appearance as the common- 
est personal ornament among the masses; simi- 
larly, it is in evidence among the lower class 
of Italians in the United States. Coral is 
easily imitated, however, and most of the de- 
fences thus relied upon by snperstitous wearers 
are spurious, but equal to the genuine in efHcacy. 
Ked gypsum is a common sophistication for pre- 
cious coral, and simple tests are: scratching it 
with the finger nail and the application of acid, 
under which it does not, like genuine coral, 
effervesce. Celluloid is now sometimes nsed as 
a substitute for coral. 

The existence of coral within the United 

states, on the shores of Little Traverse Bay, at 
Petoskey, Michigan, should not escape mention 
in an American book. The coral found here is 
fossil, and many specimens possess rare struc- 
toral beauty; they are compact and susceptible 
to a high polish. The fragments found are 
water-worn, and the weight of some masses se- 
cured attained to three pounds. The colour is 
grey, of various shades. Local lapidaries cut 
and polish these handsome fossil relics of a 
prehistoric submarine period, and shape them 
into seals, charms, cuff buttons, and paper 
weights. In the mineralogical section of the 
reports on the Eleventh Census, 1900, Mr. 
George Frederick Kunz records that from f4000 
to $5000 worth annually were sold. 


/'"'ARNET is a nonn that is applied to a 
^^ variety of gem minerals red or brown- 
iali-red. Almandite, a stone of ricli cherry, 
claret, or blood-red colour ia the precious garnet. 
A variety of garnet recently established that is 
in high favour is rhodolite. The chemical bases 
of both of these leading varieties are the same, 
a silicate of iron and aluminium. Precious gar- 
net has a hardness of about 7.5, with a specific 
gravity seldom less than 4. and occasionally as 
high as 4.3. Closely following almandite, or 
as jewellers call it, " almandine," in the favour 
of gem fanciers, is Bohemian garnet or pyrope, 
meaning "fire-lilie"; this has a range of colour 
from a deep blood red to almost black. Pyrope 
is slightly harder than almandite, and its spe- 
cific gravity lies between 3.7 and 3.8. The 
fracture is brittle; refraction, single; lostr^ 








treoos; it is transparent to opaque. Most 
varieties of garnet fuse to browii or black glass. 
lo Dana's Mineralogy, Garnet is Carbunculus 
dodecahedrus : order Hyalina. Id crystallo- 
graphy the primary form of garnet is the rhom- 
bic dodecahedron. The cleavage is indistinct 
parallel with the faces of the dodecahedron. Be- 
sides the primary twelve-sided form, with rhom- 
bic faces, the secondary forms of garnet crystals 
inclnde trapezohedrons — twenty- four-sided forms 
— with faces shaped like trapeziums; then there 
are combinations of these forms, one of which 
has thirty-six faces. The tendency of garnet is 
to crystallise and it is usually found in crystals; 
these range from tiny ones the size of a grain 
of sand up to those of several pounds in weight. 
The name garnet, according to onfe" version, is 
derived from the Latin gronntua, meaning like 
a grain, because of the resemblance of its crys- 
tals in size and colour to the seeds of the 

A carbuncle, in the popular conception, is a 

specific precious stone, but it does not exist in 

scientific mineralogy, and in the verbiage of 

^dealers now, its meaning is merely any worthy 

^^tod transtuceot stone cut en rnbnchon. Some 

^^Hten, wlio seem otberwise generally well in- 

no A Book of Precious Stones 

formed, bare fallen into this common en 
recognising the word carbuncle as the name of 
a specific gera. Probably almost any fiery-red 
tranBlucent ornamental stone in tbe days of an- 
cient Rome was called carbunculua, derived from 
carbo, coal, and tbe name was bestowed because 
of the internal fire-like colour and refiectioa 
which is a common characteristic of tbe various 
stones now generally termed garnets. The gar- 
net is among tbe stones earliest mentioned in tbe 
surviving literature of all ancient languages. 

Almandite derives its names from Alabanda, 
a city in tbe ancient district of Caria, Asia 
Minor; whence garnets were introduced to an- 
cient Rome. The most highly valued specimens 
of almandite, for a long period, came from 
localities not known to tbe western world, bat 
they were supposed to be mined near the city 
of "Sirian " in old Pegu province. Lower Burma, 
and were called " Sirian garnets." So carefnl 
an investigator and high an authority as Dr. 
Max Bauer, in his monumental work on pre- 
cious stones, states that Syriam, the ancient 
capital of Pegu, is now but a small village in 
the British province of Lower Burma near the 
great trade centre of Rangoon. A r^sumfi of ' 
tbe facta evolved by Dr. Bauer shows that no 1 


scions almandite occora in any part of Burma, 
ichile in Upper Burma the only red stones 
Sound are ruby, spinel, and red toormaHDe. 
lOng ago, therefore, Syriam was merely a dis- 
ributive point for garnets brought to its market 
■om a distance, possibly from the Shan states 
t the eastward. The " Sirian " garnet is now 
lerely a type; it tends toward a violet colour. 
Id northern India almandite is mined on an 
xtensive scale in several localities. The stone 

I found in the Alps, Australia, and Brazil; a 
ariety too opaque to be very valuable, occurs 

plentifully on the Stickeen River in Alaska. 
Ketamorphic rocks, such as gneisses or mica 
ichists, granite, and gem gravels are the usual 
Dvironments of almandite. 

Rhodolite is an intermediate between alman- 
lite and pyrope, more closely related to the 
atter, bat differing in colour from both. It 

i found as water-worn pebbles in the gravels 
Cowee Creek and Mason's Branch, Macon 

Sounty, North Carolina; sometimes it occurs 
Uong with ruby in a decomposed, basic igneous 

tck, known as "saprolite"; a curious occur- 

mce is in the form of small crystals enclosed 

II crystals of ruby. The colour resembles that of 
^e rhododendron, from which this but recently 

112 A Book of Precious Stones 

recognised precious stone was christened rhodo- 
lite. Although mineralogically different from 
almandite, and more like pyrope, rhodolite is 
tnown in the trade as " alraandine," and, in 
the United States at least, is bought and sold 
under that title; the difference in composition 
and colour is too slight for mercliant jewellers 
to recognise, and tlie name " rhodolite " is 
scarcely known to the trade or the general pub- 
lic. Id fact, in the jewelry trade, any garnet 
with a tendency toward a violet colour is classed 
as ao " almandine." Under tbe name " alman- 
dine," there has been an increased demand for 
this variety of garnet for medium-priced jew- 
elry for about five years previous to this writing. 
Scarcely second to almandite, is the dart 
blood-red pyrope, found in company with the 
diamond in South Africa, and, in the trade, 
called " Cape Ruby." This fine South African 
gem stone, companion of the diamond and na- 
tive to the world's greatest diamond fields, is 
a magnesium-aluminium garnet, containing 
manganese oxide and ferrous oxide; its specific 
gravity is 3.86, approximating that of the Bohe- 
mian pyrope, which it resembles in both chemical 
composition and colour, thus clearly classing it 
as pyrope, and not almandite, as was done 



^Hhne time after its diBOovery. In the trade at 
pre«en t this variet j of garnet cominands a 
bigher price tlian any other. 

Varieties of the lime-a!amininm garnet occa- 
sionally appear in gem-stone commerce. Lime- 
aluminium garnet has a hardness of 2.7, and a 
Bpecific gravity of 3.55 to 3.66. Its colours are 
white, pale green, amher, honey, wine, brownish- 
yellow, cinnamon, brown, and pale rose-red. 
The varieties include essonite and cinnamon 
Htone, the latter often improperly called, by 
merchants, " hyacinth," The gem cinnamon 
Ntones come chiefly from Ceylon ; they are of 
a cinnamon brown, or range from that to a 
deep gold colour tinged with brown. Gros- 
sularite includes the pale green, yellow to nearly 
white, pale pink, reddish or orange, and brown 
kinds. Romansovite is brown. Wilnite is yel- 
lowish-green to greenish -white. TopazoUte is 
topaz, to citrine, yellow. Succinite is amber 
coloured. There are two kinds of calcium-iron 
or green garnets : The demantoid, from the 
Ural Mountains, Siberia, has a hardness of 6. 
to 6.5; Bpecific gravity, 3.83 to 3.85. Deman* 
toids have a rich green colour and when clear 
and flawless are beautiful lustrous gems; the 
choicest are called '* olivines." The other green 

114 A Book of Precious Stones 

variety, Uvarovite, is fonnd chiefly in Russia. 
MoQtaDa ruby is a trade term for ttie Boe gar> 
nets found in Montana and Arizona. The finest 
American garnets are found in the territory of 
the Navajo nation in north-western New Mexico 
and north-eastern Arizona, wliere they are col- 
lected from ant-hills and scorpions' nests by 
Navajo Indians and sometimes by United States 
soldiers from adjacent forts. According to the 
most eminent authority on American gem stones, 
Dr. George Frederick Kunz, these red stones, 
known locally as Arizona and New Mexico 
rubies, are unsurpassed, equalling in value those 
from the Cape of Good Hope. Fine gems weigh- 
ing two and three carats, after cutting, are not 
rare. By artificial liglit the American stones 
are superior to " Cape rubies." These American 
garnets have evidently recently weathered out 
of a peridotic rock. 

Another type of garnet is known as spessar- 
tite, a variety of essonite, in which part of the 
alumina is replaced by manganous oxide. The 
finest specimens of this variety known were 
discovered at Amelia Court House, Virgina, 
which locality has yielded gems weighing from . 
one to one hundred carats. 



PETE precioQS opal is one of the most indi- 
vidual of gems; of all the opaque minerals, 
i revealH the most beautiful play of colours, in 
gilklore it is the birth-stone of October and the 
nbol of hope, and yet, for years, the fame of 
3 fire-flashing stone was blackened by a cloud 
f aaperstition which condemned it as unlucky; 
\ superstition the origin of which is obscure. 
I'or a time, however, it largely regained its lost 
popularity, having found its most illustrious 
latron in Her Majesty, the late Queen Victoria. 
Mother remarkahle fact about the opal is that it 
( not found in the Orient — the very land of 

lOpal, Id mineralogy, is Byalus opalinus, of 
ae order Hyalina; it is of granular structure; 
small reniform and stalactitic shapes and large 
tuberose-like concretions; hardness 5.5 to 6.5; 
specific gravity 2 to 2.21 ; lustre vitreous, some- 
times inclining to resinous or pearly; streak. 

ii6 A Book of Precious Stones 

white; colour, wbite, yellow, red, brown, green, 
or gray. Tlie colour is usually pale, due to 
foreign elements. Some opals exhibit a rich 
play of colours, while others present difEerent 
colours by refracted and reflected light. The 
cause of the colour-play is the physical condi- 
tion resulting from a miiltitude of fissures hav- 
ing striated sides which diffract and decompose 
the light. The chemical composition of the opal 
is ninety per cent, silica and ten per cent, water. 
Besides precious opal, there is the harletiuin 
opal which presents a variegated play of colours 
on a reddish ground, and resembles the fire opal 
which shows hyacinth red to honey-yellow 
colours, with fire-like reflections. Girasol is 
bluish-white and translucent, and, under a 
strong light, presents reddish reflections. Le- 
chosos opal is a variety remarkable for flashes 
of green. Hydrophane, a light eolonred opaque 
kind, becomes transparent when immersed in 
water. Cacholong is an opaque porcelain, blu- 
ish, yellowish, or reddish white. Opal agate 
has an agate-like structure. Jasp opal contains 
iron, and is to opal as jasper is to quartz. 
Wood opal is wood silicified by opal. Hyalite 
(MUller's glass) is colourless and clear, or tranit- 
lucent and a bluish white. Moss opal contains. 

The Opal 


langanese oxide, and is to opal as moss agate 
to qoarti. A freakish variety of opal is 
baalieer, a silica deposited within the joints 
bamboo ; it is absorbent, and, like hydro- 
rfaane, becomes transparent when immersed in 

Ah a mineral, opal is quite common, so that 

amateur's collection of minerals can include 

■imens to represent opal — some of them very 

atiful, too — at small cost, or for the effort 

prospecting, in many localities. The vari- 

,ies of opal are many, and the frequent inclu- 

[on of foreign matter invests it with a wonderful 

.riety of colours. The silica deposited by 

rly all natural hot waters is opalescent. The 

'eliowstone Park geysers sboot up around cones 

opal raised by the constant accretions of 

iHica deposited by the passing hot wafers, which 

fall into opal basins created in the same way. 

This variety of opal is termed geyserite. There 

wide gulf in values between precious or 

ible opal — the gem stone quality — and opal in 


Opal is generally found filling seams, cavities, 
and fissnres in igneous rocks, also emlaedded in 
lestone and argillaceous beds. 
Opals of a quality fit for use as ornamental 

ii8 A Book of Precious Stones 

stones are found in many lands. Mines in 
Czernowitza, in nortliern Hungary, long pro- 
duced the most highly valued gem opals obtain- 
able. These opals are often known as " Oriental 
opals," because they first appeared in Holland 
through Greek and Turkish traders. Despite 
the trade practice of applying the term " Orien- 
tal " to this type of opals, none is found in the 
Orient. The Hungarian opals were undoubt- 
edly those first known to the Romans. The 
claim is made that Hungarian opals are le88 
likely to deteriorate than any other variety. 
Gem opals are also found in Australia, Mexico, 
and Honduras. Although opals are produced 
to a commercial extent in several Mexican 
states, they are most systematically mined in 
Querctaro, where the opal occurs in long veins 
in a porphyritic trachyte. This opal mining 
has created a somewhat primitive cutting and 
polishing industry in the city of Queretaro. The 
exporting of Honduras opals — all ancut — is not 
extensive. In the United States the occurrence 
of gem opal has been observed in the John 
Davies River, Oregon, and near Whelan, be- 
tween the Coeur d'Alene and Nez Percfes Indian 
reservations, almost on the Idaho line, Btate of 
Washington, The most prolific source of opals 

The Opal 


^^^ recent years has been the Australia mines, 
the most prominent being Wliite Cliffs, New 
South Wales. Exteneive mining operations are 
^^iCarried on there, the matrix of the opal being 
^^b cretaceous sandstone, which has been perme- 
^Klted by hot volcanic waters. The output of 
thia region has already been represented by mil- 
lions of dollars. Opals have been obtained in 
^commercial quantities at localities on the Barcoo 
Biver and Bulla Creek, Queensland, and are 
»;asional]y found in West Australia. 
The admiration of the ancients for the opal 
I expressed by Onomacritus, writing five hun- 
tars B.C., who remarks: "The delicate 
nloar aod tenderness of the opal remind me 
' of a loving and beautiful child." Pliny, whose 
voluminous books covered so wide a range, and 
who evidently believed himself qualified to write 
abont anything, wrote of the opal: "It is 
made up of the glories of the most precious 
gems, and to describe it is a matter of inex- 
pressible difficulty." The ancients esteemed the 
opai highly, and attributed to it an influence 
for every possible good; this belief outlasted the 
Middle Ages, and in the early part of the 
jeventeenth century the opal is recorded as 
8 highly valual as ever. Then arose a 

ISO A Book of Precious Stones 

superstitioQ that the fiery stone was unlucky, 
and this became prevalent everywhere. The 
cause of tliis has been attribnted to Walter 
Scott's novel Anne of Geierstein- A genuine 
reason why opal may have come to be regarded 
as unlucky by its possessors is its mutability. 
The changes wliich may occur in the opal are 
not only uunierous but freakish and uncanny. 
Brilliant opals have lost their fires and lustre 
forever, wliile others have lost and recovered 
them. In other cases dull specimens have sud- 
denly developed brilliancy. Mediocre specimens 
will sometimes, when moistened with oil or 
water, exhibit a fine colour play, which will van- 
ish when the stones dry, and this peculiarity has 
been utilised for profit by dishonest dealers. A 
stone thus acquired would be unlucky for the 

Credit for the reinstatement of the opa! in 
public favour is believed by the author to be 
due in great part to the late Queen Victoria, 
who, in many ways, demonstrated her royal 
favour for the stone of many fires and colours, 
and there is no doubt that the Queen's motive 
was to benefit her colonial subjects in Australiaf 
where opals had been discovered. 

Queen Victoria gave to each of her danj 

The Opal 

at tlieir marriage, opals, and tins and other acts 
wLlch signified her admiratiou for the stone and i 
her disdaia for the sux)erstition through which 
its reputation had fallen into evil days soon ' 
raised opals high in tiie realm of precious 
stones; the result heing tliat Australian exports 
of opal were handsomely increased by the de- 
mand for, and shipment of, the stone thus royally 
reinstated to its ancient high estate of popular j 

It is but a just appreciation of the average i 
high intelligence of the gem-purchasing Ameri- 
can public, to state that opals have always been 
appreciated in the United States for tlieir 
merits, and that here the dread tabu of " un- 
lucky " has had the least effect. And it may be 
said that it is on their merits they are judged, 
for the demand has latterly distinctly decreased 
for the inferior grades of opals that formerly sold 
readily, while choice gems are sought for, and 
American purchasers prove themselves well 
posted and very discriminating. 



V^LLOW is the coloor generally associated 
* with the topaz, yet topaz is sometimes 
colourless, or may present almost any colour, 
and beautiful specimens of otber colours are 
often supposed to be some other mineral, so 
tiioronghly identified is this stone with the 
colour yellow. The sometime popularity of to- 
paz has of late years declined, and a probable 
reason is the common substitution of other 
stones for it. Topaz takes its name from 
Topasios, meaning " to seek "; because the earli- 
est known locality from whence it carae was 
an island in the Red Sea which was often sur- 
rounded by fog, and therefore difficult for the 
local mariners to find. 

The name of topaz in mineralogical science 
is Topaz rhombicus, and, like the opal, it be- 
longs to the order Hyalina. The primary form 
of topaz in crystallography is a right rhombic 
prism. Its cleavage is parallel to its basal 

The Topaz 




ilaue, almost perfect, and it cleaves so eiisily 
at a cat topaz, if dropped, might be easily 
■acked or broken. The crystallisation of topaz 
is imperfect; structure, columnar; lustre, vitre- 
ous; streak, white. Topaz is either transparent 
or translucent; the colours of topaz including 
wine, amber, honey, and straw-yellow, pale blue 
to pale green of many shades, greyish, reddish, 
and white. Rolled pebbles of limpid colourless 
topaz are called by Brazilians " piiigas d'agoa." 
and by the French, '' gouttea d'eau," both mean- 
ing drops of water. The coloured varieties 
Bbow marked pleochroism> The fracture of this 
Jneral is conchoidal and uneven. 
True topaz is a silicate of alumina, contain- 
ing hydroxl and fluorine; hardness, 8; specific 
gravity, 3.4 to 3.6. Being three and one half 
times as heavy as water, topaz can be readily 
distinguished from other stones resembling it 
by those accustomed to handling them. Topaz 
cannot be fused on charcoal before the blowpipe, 
bat it is partially decomposed by sulphuric 
acid. Its hardness enables it to take a high 
polish, and the colourless variety has been cut 
iu brilliant or rose form so as to resemble the 
iamond, for which It might readily pass in day- 
However. it is but weakly doubly 

124 A Book of Predou5 Stones 

refnftire and diepersire. and iu oomporatiTe 
softneM make« ita distinrtioB fn>m the diamond 
a Bitnple aaltcr. AJtfaongh iofiKible, vhen aaf- 
ficieoUy beated, the fac«9 of crrstalltsation of 
topas become corered with small blisiers which 
crack as mod as formed; and vitb borax it 
slowly forms a clear glass. Some varieties 
asBome a wiae yellow or piak tinge when 
beated. Tbe roee-pink topaz sometimes appear* 
ing mounted in jewelry, is not natural ; tbe 
delicate tint of this gem with an artificial com-- 
plexioQ results from a ^mple process called 
" pinking,*' applied to yellow or brown kinds. 
A topaz selected to be "pinked " is packed in 
magnesia, asbestos, or lime, and cnrefnlly and 
gradnally heated to a low red beat; the stone 
then being slowly cooled. If tbe temperature 
attained has not been sufficieotly high, tbe de- 
sired rose-petal tint is not obtained and a sal- 
mon tint appears; if the temperature rises too 
high, or is too long continued, tbe colour com- 
pletely disappears. Pulverised topaz changes 
to green the blue solution of violets. Topaz gen- 
erally becomes electric by heat, and if both ter- 
minations of tbe subject specimen are perfect, 
polarity will be developed; transparent varieties 
are susceptible to electrical excitation by friction. 

The Topaz 


^f Several minerals arc comtuoni; called topaz; 
yellow sappliire is called " Oriental topaz "; 
and varieties of quartz are called " Saxon," 
" Scotch," " Spanish," " Smoky," and " False " 
topaz. The hardness, weight, and power of de- 
veloping frictional electricity, possessed by the 
true topaz, enable investigators to distinguish 
real topaz from these nominal varieties. 

Topaz commonly occurs in gneiss or granite, 
atJsociated with tourmaline, mica, or beryl, and 
occasionally with apatite, fluor-spar, and tin. 
The purest variety of topaz, perfectly colourless 
and pellucid, is not uncommon; as crystals it 
i« found in Miask, in the Ural Mountains, 
Sil>eria, and, abundantly, as water-worn peb- 
bles, in the river and creek beds of Diamautina 
and Minas Novas in the state of IVIinas Geraes, 
Brazil. Mineralogists regard the " Itraganza," 
^tt gem claimed to be a diamond, included in the 
^jpwwn jewels of Portugal, and weighing l(iS(J 
carats, as one of these pebbles; probably one of 
the finest ever found. A sobriquet for these 
clear colourless topazes is " slave's diamonds." 
Blue topaz from Hrazil is sometimes termed 
" ESrazilian sapphire." A fine saffron-yellow 
variety, called " Indian topaz," occurs infre- 
quently in Ceylon, and rarely, in Brazil; the 

126 A Book of Precious Stones 

golden jeilow tinted variety from Brazil is the 
kind distinguished in the jewelry trade as 
" Brazilian topaz." Schneckenateio, near Got- 
tesberg, in the vicinity of Auerbach, Voigtland, 
Kingdom of Saxony, is said, by Dr. Mai Baner, 
to be the most important European locality 
prodneing topaz; it is there imbedded in a steep 
wall of rock, and occurs in small fragments of 
schists rich in tonrmallne, cemented firmly into 
a bard mass by quartz and topaz. Brazil is 
the main source of topaz, and a review of the 
localities, association, and varieties of its estab- 
lished occurrence there would require an ex- 
tensive space. 

In North America topaz is found to an ex- 
tent of small commercial importance in Mexico. 
In the United States it occurs more abundantly, 
although gem-quality is rare. Colorado haa 
yielded the best specimens from localities in 
Chaffee County and El Paso County, on Chey- 
enne Mountain and elsewhere in the region of 
Pike's Peak. Small but brilliant crystals have 
been found at Thomas Mountain, Sevier County, 
Utah. At Bald Mountain, North Chatham, 
New Hampshire, topaz occurs, with pbenacitQ, J 



TURQUOISE is a popular gem mineral to- 
I day, as it was anciently with the Persians 

and the Aztecs, whose name for it was chalchi- 
huitl. Turquoise is a Frencb word, meaning a 
' Turkish stone, also the feminine of Turkish. 
Turquoise is an amorphous stone occurring in 
I kidney-shaped nodules and incrustations; its 
I colour is varions shades of aznre or robin's egg 
blue. Of Persian origin, it is supposed to he 
the stone anciently referred to, in Pliny's nat- 
nral history, as callais, callaina, and callaira. 
In his catalogue of gems in the United States 
National Museum, Wirt Tassin applies to tar- 
qooise the names caltainite and turkis; Cat- 
telle says it is known to scientists as 
"callaite"; Oliver Cummings Farrington in his 
Gem8 and Oem Minerals describes callainite as 
a distinct mineral. 

The hardness of turquoise is G; specific grav- 
ity, 2.6 to 2.8; there is no cleavage; it is brittle 

laS A Book of Precious Stones 

and breaks unevenly. The lustre of turquoise 
is waxy aud the colour is sky-lilue, bluish-green, 
apple-green, and green isb-gray. The colour is 
liable to change, however, the blue becoming a 
pale green. Artiflcial means are resorted to 
for "improving" stones of a poor colour, but 
a washing in strong ammonia water will expose 
the fraud. This solution will not affect the 
colour of the true turquoise, but as soap and 
water does, possessors of rings set with tur- 
quoise should never wash their hands without 
removing their ringe. 

The chemical composition of the turquoise is 
a hydrous phosphate of aluminium and copper, 
and the principal components in a hundred 
parts are: phosphoric acid, 30.9; alumina, 
44.50; oxide of copper, 3.75; water, 19. 

The exposure of turquoise to a sufficiently 
high degree of heat will extract the water aod 
caojse it to crackle. 

The turquoise most highly prized comes from 
Persia, and the most celebrated are those from 
an old mine, the Abdurrezzagi in a district of 
the Nishapur province in the north-eastern 
part of the country. Less valued specimens 
come from Asia Minor, Turkestan, and the 
Kirghiz Steppes. The Egyptians mined tiir- i 



Fqnoise in the Wady Maghara, in tlie desert of 
Sinai. Specimens from Arabia in modern times 
proved of little value, fading quickly when ex- 
posed to the light. The mineral Las also been 
found in Victoria and New South Wales. The 
, United States is constantly growing in inipurt- 
Bce as a source for supply for the world 
arket for turquoise. A traoliytic rock in the 
( Cerillos Mountains near Santa F6, aborigi- 
nally worked by the natives, is a well-known 
line, and some beautiful specimens have re- 
ntly been found there. Other localities are 
lirquoise Mountain, Cochise County, and Min- 
ral Park, Mojave County, Arizona; Columbus, 
Nevada; Holy Cross Mountain, Colorado; and 
mo and San Bernardino counties, California, 
jcord specimens come from the mines of the 
' AEore Mining Company, Burro Mountains, Kew 
Because of the opacity of turquoise, it is sel- 
^■Aom cat with facets, but in a round or ova! 
Hporm, with convex surface; as the pieces suit- 
^^We for cutting seldom reach a large size big 
tarqnoise gems are almost unknown. Turquoise 
matrix is also used now for medium class jew- 
riry, the cutting including both the stone and 
|fiB matrix. Tlie turquoise in a dark-brown 

I30 A Book of Precious Stones 

uiRtriz is mncb fancied for this purpose, as the 
mottling of brown in the blue prodnces a very 
rich effect. The matrix of gems from some 
American mines is flinty, and both the gem aud 
tlie matrix are very hard which affords possi- 
bilities of a high polish, but as the flint some- 
times penetrates the turqnoise it is apt to 
break it. 

Occidental turquoise, formerly used extcn- 
sirely, is odontolith, made from fossil bone, 
coloured by a phosphate of iron ; it is still mined 
to a small extent in the vicinity of Simor, Lower 
Languedoc, France. This western "turqaoise" 
loses its colour in artiflcial light, and, when 
heated, gives off an offensive odour caused by 
the decomposition of animal matter. Its weight 
is lighter than that of turquoise, and it does 
not give a blue colour, with ammonia, when 
dissolved in hydrochloric acid, like the genuine. 

The conditions peculiar to the demand for 
turquoise at present in America are like those 
affecting opals; the very choicest specimens are 
highly prized and readily sold, while the aver- 
age Bpecimena are considered with indifference. 



Hr^AT'S-EYE is a well established term in the 
^^ trade in precious stones, and more than 
one mineral which exhibits chatoyancy — a 
French word signifying a changeable, undulat- 
ing lustre, like the eye of a cat in the dark — 
is termed, and sold as " cat's-eye." 

The true cat's-eye is cymophane, a variety of 
chrysoberyi, a mineral resembling beryl in con- 
taining the element glncinum (beryllium), but 
otherwise distinct Chrysoberyi is devoid of 
silica, which beryl possesses, and is, theoretic- 
ally, composed of glucina, 19.8 and alumina, 
80.2. Jewellers variously call chrysoberyi 
"cat'8-eye," "Oriental cat's-eye," or " Cey- 
looese cat's-eye." Besides its principal com- 
ponents, chrysoberyi frequently contains im- 
purities such as iron and chromium oxides. 
Chrysoberyi is very hard — 8.5, being third in 
Mohs*B scale to the diamond, and when cut is 
susceptible of a high polish. Heavier than the 

132 A Book of Precious Stones 

diamond, the specific gravity of chrysoberyl 
■anges from 3.5 to 3.8. Chrysoberyl crystallises 
in the rhombic system and commonly appears 
complicated twin crystals. This peciriiar 
mineral has no distinct cleavage, but has a con- 
choidal fracture; it is brittle; acids will not 
attack it; it is infusible before the blowpipe; 
it can be electrified positively, by friction, and 
will remain charged for several boors. Lustre 
vitreous to slightly greasy. Chrysoberyl is 
transparent to opaque, but is only transparent 
when cut and polished; it is doubly, but not 
strongly, refractive. The limited range of 
colour in Brazilian specimens is from pale 
yellowish-green to golden yellow and brownish- 
yellow. Crystals from the Ural Mountains vary 
from an intense green to grass-green or emerald- 
green — the latter variety is alexandrite. 

The distinction of cymophane from ordinary 
chrysoberyl is its chatoyancy, which appears as 
a milky-white, bluish or greenish- white, or, more 
rarely, golden-yellow sheen which follows every 
movement of the stone; this characteristic is 
most strongly developed by cutting the stone 
convex, and therefore cat's-eye is cut en cabo- 
chon. A silvery line or streak of light extends 
across the curved surface and is most strongly 

Cat's-Eye 133 

fined in a strong ligbt, while its boundarieB 
are sharpest in small stones. The effect of the 
chatoyancy is in great part due to the judicious 
work of the lapidary, and nsually the greatest 
possible efifecf is produced by flie greatest curva- 
ture of the surface. Chatojancy appears only 
iu the cloudy chryaoberjl, and the cloudiness 
is due to thousands of microscopically small 
cavities within the stone. The influence of the 
whims and preferences of royalty on the popu- 
larity of gems was remarkably illustrated by 
the sudden favour with which chrysoberyl cat's- 
eye was invested, when His Royal Highness, the 
Duke of Connaught, gave his fiancee a ring set 
with this stone, which vastly increased the de- 
mand for it and caused a corresponding rise in 

The Minas Novas district in the northern 
part of the state of Minas Geraes, Brazil, is 
the most prolific producer of chrysoberyl of 
the finest colours; most of the specimens are 
chatoyant. The mineral in this locality occurs 
associated with rock crystal, amethyst, red 
quartz, green tourmaline, yellowish-red (vine- 
gar) spinel, garnet, euclase and white and 
blue topaz. Chrysoberyl is erroneously inden- 
tified with, and termed, chrysolite by the Brazil- 

134 A Book of Precious Stones 

iana, and this error is prevalent in the trade 
in precious stones and jewelry, almost every- 
where. The usual tests, the scale of hardness 
especially, will promptly differentiate chryso- 
lite. The source of supply of cjmophane and 
Don-chatoyant chrysoberyl second in importance 
to Brazil, is the island of Ceylon. The cat's- 
eye record for size was long held by a Ceylonese 
specimen, and, until the year 1815, this was a 
jewel in the crown of the King of Eandy. The 
weight of the Ceylon stones ranges from one 
to one hundred carats; they are found in com- 
pany with sapphires in gem-gravels, chiefly in 
the Suffragan district and the vicinity of Matura 
in the south of the island. To a small extent, 
chatoyant chrysoheryl is mined in the Ural 
Mountains of Siberia. 

Among tbe numerous minerals which when 
fibrous, or cut across the cleavage and convex, 
will exhibit the opalescent ray resembling the 
contracted pupil of the eye of a cat, are 
beryl, corundum, crocidolite, dmnortierite, 
quartz, filled with acicular crystals or fibrous 
minerals, such as actinolite, hyssolite, or horn- 
blende; hypersthene, enstatite, bronztte, arago- 
O'te, gypsum, labradorite, limonite, and 
hematite. These may be opaque, translucent, or 



^Bansparent and of anj colour or coloars. Pcr- 
baps tUe commooeBt of these minerals is the 
quartz cat's-eye, which falls far short of rivalling 
the brilliancy and soft colouring of cymophane. 
The shades of this variety of quartz are green- 
ish, yellowish -grey, and brown. Simple tests 
will distinguish this mineral from cymophane, 
as its hardness is but 6 to 7 and its specific 
gravity, 2.6. This quartz melts with soda to a 
clear glass, is soluble in hydrofluoric acid, and 
is not dichroic; its chief components are silicon 
and oxygen. Cut en citboclion, a band of light ap- 
pears across the parallel fibres of asbestos which 
the quartz contains. 

Tiger-eye, in the trade, is considered sepa- 
rately from cafs-eye, hut as chatoyancy is its 
chief characteristic, it may as well be included 
Iiere and, as its present commercial value is 
low and the demand for it is small, it can be 
summarily described and dismissed. The proper 
term for the mineral known as " tiger-eye " is 
crocidolite, a name derived from the Greek and 
meaning " woof," in allusion to its fibrous 
structure. Crocidolite is a fibrous asbestos- 
like mineral. Its colours are gold-yellow, 

nging to yellowish -brown, indigo to greenish- 
Rne, leek-green and a dull red. The blue is 

136 A Book, of Precious Stones 

Tisnally distinguished aa " hawk's-eye." Croci- 
dolite contains a siliceous base, usually a fer- 
ruginous quartz, and when cut higtily convex 
with the longer diameter of the oTal at right 
angles to the direction of the fibres, the cat's- 
eye ray is strongly apparent. Crocidolite con- 
tains : silica, 51 ; iron oxides, 34 ; soda, 7 ; 
magnesia, 2; water, 3. Hardness 4 to 7 and 
specific gravity 3.26. The best specimens are 
found in the Orange River region and Griqua- 
land, South Africa. 

Tiger-eye is well adapted to, and has been 
largely used for carving cameos and Intaglios; 
it was very popular from about the year 1880 
to 1890 in the United States. 

The stones distinguished as chatoyant some- 
times include alexandrite, a variety of chryso- 
beryl, strongly dlchroic and sometimes trichrolc. 
Mr. Edwin W. Streeter. in his book Precious 
Stones and Gems, states tbat be has seen 
specimens of alexandrite with a perfect cat's-eye 
line, yet subject to the change of colour by 
artificial light characteristic of this mineral. 
To display the ray, the stone is of course cut 
convex instead of with six facets. This atone 
was discovered in the Ural Mountains, Siberia, 
in the year 1830, on an anniversary of the birth* 



day of the Czar Alexander 11., of Russia, for 
whom it was named. Alexandrite has marked 
hues of red and green, the national colours of 
Bussia; by daylight it shows a bright or deep 
olive-green colour, but in artificial light a soft 
columbine red or raspberry red or raspberry 
tint One description of this gem includes the 
phrase 'Mt is an emerald by day and an ame- 
thyst by night" Subsequent to the discovery of 
alexandrite in the Urals, the same gem mineral, 
but of a better and more workable quality, was 
discovered in the island of Ceylon, which is the 
present principal source of supply. 


/'^HRTSOPRASE is the chief of two varieties 
^-^ of homstone which are cut as ornamental 
Btonee, the other being wood-stone or silicified 
wood, sQCh as is ohtained from the petrified 
foreat known as Chalcedony Pari;, in Arizona, 
and which occurs abundantlj in varions moun- 
tainous localities in the western United States. 
Hornetone is an old mining term and is not 
used bj lapidaries. It is a fine-grained, verj 
compact, variety of qnartz, of a granular 

The name chrysoprase is derived from two 
Greek words, meaning golden leek, and describes 
the colour of the stone. The ancients ascribed to 
it the virtues of the emerald, though in a lesBer 
degree. They believed it lost its colour wheo 
in contact with poison, and was a cordial and 

A characteristic of chrysoprase is its splintery 
fracture; the sharp edges of fragments verging 




^pn translncenc;. The approved tints of chryso- 
prase are leek aod apple green, although the 
blue, golden-green, and other yellowish tints are 
occasionally used. The colours remain stead- 
fast in artificial light. The colour owes its 
presence to about one per cent, of nickel^ prob- 
ably in the form of a hydrated silicate; the loss 
of water through heating the stone but mod- 
erately, causes it to pale gradually, until it ends 
in a total loss of colour. A long exposure to 
the direct rays of the sun will produce a like 
effect, but the cause will he the strong light 
and not the heat. The brittleness of chryso- 
prase presents difficulties to the lapidary; it is 
usually cut en cabochon, or else with a plane 
surface bordered with one or two courses of 
facets. Although its intrinsic value is less than 
it was formerly, chrysoprase is one of the most 
valuable varieties of quartz in the ornamental 
stone field, and is highly esteemed among the 
semi-precious stones. 

Chrysoprase occurs in plates and veins, 
usually locked in serpentine, and its most an- 
cient and common source is a district south of 
Breslau in the province of Silesia, Germany, 
According to an account published in 1805, a 
vein of chrysoprase three (German) miles long 

I40 A Book of Precious Stones 

was discovered in 174(1 by a Prussian ofBcer. 
The real discovery probably long preceded tbis, 
because chrysoprase, used decoratively, has ex- 
isted in the Wenzel Chapel, Prague, since the 
fourteenth century. The leek-green stone is found 
in a few other unimportant localities in Europe, 
also India, m the Ural Mountains, Siberia, and 
it occurs in various places in North America; 
one is at Nickel Mountain near Riddle, Douglas 
County, Oregon, but the most important mines 
are those of the Himalaya Mining Company, 
about eight miles from Visalia in Tulare County, 

Frederick the Great of Prussia highly fa- 
voured and evinced a great interest in this 
beautiful stone; possibly this was to some ex- 
tent because it originated in Silesia, which be- 
came his conquered territory in 1745, after his 
second Silesian war. Frederick had two famous 
tables made of chrysoprase, and had it utilised in 
mosaics. Basking in the sunlight of royal fa- 
vour, chrysoprase grew in popularity, which its 
native merits have always, to a considerable 
degree, sustained. 

A charming Boumanian legend ascribes the 
discovery of chrysoprase in the rocky bed of 
the Biul Doamnei, a beautiful stream, to a Prln* 



( Trina, wlio, to succour her people in time 
of dire famine, stripped herself of all her pos- 
sessions but a pitiful last piece of jewelry, a 
golden lizard with green eyes of chrysoprase, 
given to the princess on her wedding day by 
her deceased mother. A wizard admonished the 
princess never to part with the lizard, because 
it would some day bring untold riches, and be- 
sides that, whoever possessed any leek-green 
chrysoprase would, in time of great distress, 
understand the language of animals. Reduced 
to the verge of selling her last treasure by the 
unbearable sight of the sufferings of the chil- 
dren of her starving people, the good Princess 
Trina was weeping and praying at a window, 
when a tiny lizard with glittering green eyes 
darted into the room, and, in a silver voice and 
lacertilian language, which the princess by 
virtue of her talisman understood perfectly, 
said: " Help shall arise for thee out of a river: 
Only seek." 

Thus admonished the princess wandered 
through the stony bed of one river after an- 
other wearing out her eyes, her strength, and 
her soul, in the search; until, when about to 
succumb to exhaustion, she discovered a vast 
treasure of chrysoprase, thus ending the famine 

143 A Book of Precious Stones 

and inaagorating an unprecedented reign of 
prosperity for her beloved people. 

Besides the remarkable understanding of the 
lizard's speech by the princess, another mira- 
culous occurrence is connected with this dis- 
covery: from that day to this, the waters of 
the Riul Doamnei have remained a leek-green, 
as can be easily proved to any one visiting the 


ADE is a verdant miDera] knont to man 
for ages, and osed for personal ornaments, 
'ireapoDS, implemeDts, art obje«Ui, and applied 
to ioterior decoration. The word emerald, so 
freqnentlj appearing in ancient writings, is be- 
lieved to bare sometimes meant jade — an opaqne 
"to translucent mineral — and nnlike tbe emerald 
in anything, excepting a slight resemblance in 
colour. The word "jade" is now a generic 
term applied to Tarious mineral substances, as 
cbloro-melanite, or jadeite, nephrite, saussurite, 
pseudo-nephrite; these minerals are character- 
ised by toughness, compactness of texture, and 
colour range from cream white to dark green 
id nearly black. Although appearing in tbe 
ide in precious stones and jewelry, in tbe 
art objects of every land, and although exten- 
sively imitated — sometimes in a fashion, how- 
e\-er, that could deceive no one — " jade " is 
nowhere prized and appreciated so much as in 

144 A Book of Precious Stones 

tiie Chinese Empire; and whereTer od the globe 
adventurous Chinese roam or locate it is always 
found as one of their most cherished posses- 
siona Properly the term " jade " includes but 
two minerals; nephrite and jadeite. Nephrite 
is Nepltrus amorphous of the order Chaliclnea, 
according to Dana's system of mineralogy. The 
name is from a Greek word meaning a kidney; 
the ancient Greeks believing this mineral to 
possess the virtue of a specific remedy for all 
diseases of the kidneys, as, indeed, the Chinese 
believe now, and have for centuries. Jade is 
massive, of fine granular or impalpable sub- 
stance; hardness, 6.5; specific gravity, 2.96 to 
3.1; lustre, vitreous; streak, white; colour, leek- 
green, passing into blue, grey, and white; trans- 
lucent to sub-translucent; fracture, coarse and 
splintery. An average specimen contains silica, 
50; magnesia, 31; alumina, 10; oxide of iron, 
5.5; and nearly three per cent, of water, with 
a tinge of chrome oxide. Jade is infusible be- 
fore the blowpipe, but becomes white; with 
borax it forms clear glass. 

Jadeite is a tough, fibrous foliated, to closely 
compact, mineral, grouped with the pyroxenes; 
hardness, 6.5 to 7; specific gravity, 3.33 to 3.35. 
Jadeite will fuse readily before the blowpipe to 



L transparent glas» (.'ontaintng bobbles or hlis- 

A variety that is dark green verging on 

18 termed cbloromelanite. Weapons and 

ornaments curved in jadeite iu prehistoric times 

are found on every continent. But few of tlie 

^Hilocalities from whenee tlic mineral came tbat 

^Hnpplied raw material for tbesc unnamed ur- 

^Hpsana and artists, are known; the most import- 

^Rbit is IQ the vicinity of Mogoung in Upper 

^BBnrma, where it occtirs in boulders embedded 

in a reddish-yellow clay in river valleys. The 

jadeite miners crack the bnuldere by heating, 

■and the pieces found of merchantable quality 
toe either sawed into the reijuired shapes by 
iBeDder Bteel saws, kept tense by bamboo bows, 
or Hold as found to traders who come in cara- 
vans from China. The mineral here found is 
thus distribnted throughout the Chinese Em- 
pire. Jadeite of milk-white colour is most 
highly prized and that with briglit green spots 
t next in favour. Dr. Max Bauer states that 
V a piece of less than three cubic feet which 
f»ld for 150,000. 

I Nephrite occurs in gneiss and amphibole 
hUt» in the Karakash Valley in the Kuen 
Ion Mountains, Turkestan, and this is now an 
IDportant source of supply; these mines have 

t^6 A Book of Precious Stones 

been worked for more tliao two thoaaand years. 
Nephrite is foand in eastern Siberia, Silesia, 
Germany, and in New Zealand. Both neplirite 
and jadeite, carved into weapons and ornaments, 
have been found in all the Americas; the oc- 
currence of nephrite in Alaska has been well 
established, and it is a possibility that much of 
the carved material found far south of Alaska 
originated there. 

The Chinese name for jade is " Yu," or " Ya- 
Shih " (Yu stone), and the Chinese do not seem 
to distinguish between jadeite and nephrite. In 
the western world jade is used bat to a limited 
extent for jewelry, excepting as an artistic 
fancy or fad, by those who have visited the 
Orient, or become interested in it through visit- 
ing the " Chinatown " colonies of the immigrant 
Cantonese in American cities. A demand for 
jade bracelets as souvenirs of visits has grown 
up, these Oriental ornaments tteing especially 
appreciated by the artistic. Outside the realm 
of jewelry, very high prices are paid in Europe 
and the United States by connoissears and col- 
lectors for beautiful examples of Chinese art, 
not for the intrinsic value of the mineral, but 
because of the wondrous workmanship displayed 
by the patient and skilful Chinese artisans. 



MOONSTONES hare a soft attractiveness 
that is in contrast with the 

►.angles of the majority of precious atones. They 
■ are usually cot en cabockon or sometimes turned 
lin the form of balls, and, as the stone is re- 
Iputed to be potent in providing its possessor 
iTFith good fortune, these chatoyant spheres are 
I in favour as lucky charms. The superstitions 
■regarding gems in medieval times included one 
Ltbat was quite general, that a moonstone held 
I the moutli would stimulate and refresh the 
memory. If the moonstone really possesses such 
[ficacy, it should be a modern specific for wit- 
in courts of justice, such as corporation 
[fleers whose books have been burned, or 
BfltUerwise illegally disposed of, and bankrupts 
Hrho cannot remember what disposition was 
lade of their assets. Among the beliefs held 
this stone, was one that it would cure 
pilepsy, a faith still retained by the French 

148 A Book of Precious Stones 

peasants of the Basque province. Another be- 
lief wae that during the waxing of the moon 
it was an efBcacious love cliarn); while during 
the moon's waning it would enahle its wearer 
to foretell future events. If there is any basis 
in fact for tbis belief, it should be the favourite 
gem of tipsters of the race tracks and stock 

A sort of cousin-german of the moonstone is 
the sunstone, which however is a far less im- 
portant lumiuarj in the firmament of gems. 
Although various minerals may be termed 
" nioonHtones," the true moonstone is the opales- 
cent variety of or thoolase- feldspar, also bearing 
other names, but usually identified by the name 
adularia — a name which it derives from Mount 
Adula, one of the highest peaks of St. Gothard 
in the Alps, where it is found. The Greeks 
called it Aphroseline, signifying the splendour 
of the moon. The Komana called it LunarU. 
A transparent, fibrous, lustrous gypsum, found 
in England, selenite, which derives its name 
from its soft lustre, suggestive of moonshiDC, 
and literally signifying " moonstone," may be 
merely mentioned here, but this soft substance 
is entitled to no place in a list of even the 
fiemi-precions stones. 



Moonstone, acoordiug to the mineralogical 

Iconreptij of the United States National Museum, 

) a traoBparent albite having a chatoyant re- 

tflection resembling that of a cat's-eje, or an 

E opaque pearlj white albite having a bluish opa- 

} teacence. Albite occurs in opaque to transparent 

masses aod in tricliaic crystals having a daal 

cleavage in different directions, one of which is 

i highly perfect ; hardness, 6 ; specific gravity, 

1 2.62; lustre vitreous, sometimes pearlj on a 

I cleavage surface; colours, white, bluish, greyish, 

f reddish, greeoish, and green, with, occasionally, 

bluish cliatoyancy or play of colour. One 

I hundred parta of albite contain: silica, 6S.7; 

I alumina, 19.5; soda, 11.8. 

Albite is a constituent of many crystalline 
I rooks, and frequently replaces feldspar as a 
I constituent of granite, of syenite, and of green- 
litone; sometimes it is associated with feldspar 
f Bnd dolomite. Common occurrences are in veins 
or cavities in granite or granitoid rocks, which 
are also sometimes repositories of fine crystals 
. of other gem minerals, such as beryl, tourma- 
hlinc, and smoky quartz. 

The moonstone of commerce comes chiefly 

■om Ceylon, where it is found in pieces several 

lioches in diameter resulting from the decomposi- 

ISO A Book of Precious Stones 

tion of a porphjritic rock. Ceylon moonstone la 
sometimes erroneously termed " Ceylon opal." 
Albite JB found at Mineral Hill, near Media, 
Delaware County, Pennsylvania; in Allen's Mica 
Mine, Amelia Court House, Virginia; and other 
localities In North America. 

The term suustone, or helioHte, is applied to 
aveuturine kinda of oglioclase, one of the feld- 
spars; these are of a greyish white to reddish 
gray colour with internal yellowish or reddish 
reflections, proceeding from disseminated crys- 
tals or flakes of iron oxide. Sunstone is found 
at Lyme, Connecticut, among other American 
localities. Its use in jewelry is now very 
limited; it is not costly, and artificial "sun- 
stone " or " goldstone," made of glass, contain- 
ing sparkling particles of metal, is often pre- 
ferred to the genuine. 


I IJTBRIDS are foreign to mineralogy, bnt 
I * * there ia no precious stone so difficult to 
■■peciflcallj determine as chrysolite, because of 
■ the confusion regarding it in the minds of tliose 
leigaged in the commerce of precious stones. 
Mineralogists generalise the varieties of chrys- 
olite under the common term " olivine." To 
^American jewellers it is perhaps most commonly 
Ijcnown as peridot. With the usual indiffereuce 
^to mineralogical distinctions of the average jew- 
peller, it is possible that more green garnets than 
Ichrysolite are sold under the name olivine. 
IW. R. Cattelle, in his boob, Precious Stones 
I writes: 

The distinction between rarieties is practically 

Vtme of coloor only. For many years lapidarios 

Were in the habit of calling the chrysoberyl " Ori- 

ntal chrysolite," and in consequence the two stones 

Ijliare been confused, though the chrysolite is much 

tbe softer stone and usually shows marked dif- 

iDcee to colour and lustre. 

152 A Book of Precious Stones 

At present it is customary to call those which 
incline most to yellow "chrysolite"; the yellowish 
green, resembling a light tourmaline with a dash 
of yellow, is linown by the uame " peridot," given 
to it by the Freoch jewellers; and "olivine" is the 
name associated with the brighter yellowish em- 
erald-green variety, although originally the yellow 
to olive-green stones were known by that name. 

Few olivines are sold as such. The beautiful 
bright yellowish -green stones known here as olivines, 
are generally demantoids, Russian green garnets, of 
about the same hardness; these are rarely found 
large enough to cut to gems of over oue half to 
three quarters of a carat. 

Olivine crystallises in the orthorliombic sys- 
tem; also occurring massive; compact or granu- 
lar; usually in embedded grains; hardness, 6.5 
to 7; specific gravity, 3.33 to 3.44; cleavage, dis- 
tinct; fracture, conchoidal; brittle; lustre, vit- 
reous; colour, typical, olive greeu; brownish, 
greyish red and black. It is strongly doubly re- 
fractive with marked dichroism in some spe- 
cimens; peridot showing straw-green and a green 
image. Gem kinds and their colours are chrys- 
olite, yellowish green; peridot or "evening em- 
erald," olive pistachio, or leek-green colour, of a 
hue more subdued than the emerald — green beryl. 
The approved tint of peridot resembles that re- 
vealed by looking through a delicate translucent 



^Ppeen leaf. Hjalosiderite, " Job's tears," is a 
liiglily ferruginous roriety; specific gravity at- 
luiciag 3,57; colour, a riclt olive green. 

Olivine is a frequently occurring constituent 
of some eruptive rocks, is also found in granular 
limestone and dolomite, and in several schists 
and ore deposits. Chemically, olivine — a sam- 
ple Bpeoiuien — in composed of, approximately, 
I silica, 41; magnesia, 50; iron oxide, 9- 
V Olivine is a constituent of meteorites. The 
■ourees of supply of this somewhat puzzling 
mineral are characteristically doubtful. Dr. 
George Frederic Kunz is quoted as saying that 
modern supply of chrysolite is taken out 
old jewelry. The large transparent pieces 
f chrysolite used for gem purposes are reported 
to originate in the Levant, Burma, Ceylon, 
Egypt, and Brazil. Recently a limited supply 
has come into the market from upper Egypt 
near the Red Sea — perhaps an ancient source. 
The chrysolite of the Bible may have been topaz. 
Small chrysolites — " Job's tears "—of good 
quality are found in the sand with pyrope 
■net in Arizona and New Mexico. 



IXUXZITE is a comparatively new transpar- 
*^ ent gem discovered in America about 1903 ; 
it is a lilac-coloured spodumene, wbicli, upon the 
suggestion of the mineralogist Cbarles Basker- 
ville, was named kunzite, in honour of Dr. George 
Frederic Kudz, because of his services to the 
scientific world in the gem branch of mineralogy. 
The honour accorded Dr. Knnz by mineralogists 
in accepting the name is enhanced because of 
the beauty of this new gem mineral. The first 
crystals of this unaltered lilac-coloured spodu- 
mene were discovered a mile and a half north- 
east from Pala, San Diego County, California. 
Tlie vicinity of this discovery was already of 
great interest to students of gem minerals be- 
cause but fifty feet away from the spot is a 
famous deposit of tourmaline from which spe- 
cimen crystals remarkable for the unusually 
large size and great beauty have been taken, 
while half a mile away is a celebrated rubellite 



|«nd lepidolite locality. The Bpodumene crys- 
; found near Pala are of extraordinary size, 
me neighJDg thirty-one ounces, troy; tlie dimen- 
jBloDS of this crystal were 18 x 8 x 3 centimetres. 
Kunzite has a considerable range of tints 
irbich include shades characterised as: deep 
wy lilac, rich deep pink purple, and delicate 
Dk amethystine ; tliis and the lighter lilac 
shades are the typical tints. The finest spe- 
cimens we have seen have a bright lustre and 
perfect transparency. These lilac-spodumene 
crystals occurred in a ledge which was traced 
for twelve hundred feet along the top of a 
ridge. The rock is a coarse decomposed granite, 
which might be termed pegmatite, with the feld- 
spar much kaoliuised and reduced to a " red 
dirt," and showing many large quartz crystals, 
some of them weighing 150 pounds, but not 

► Other coloured crystals of spodumene which 
approach in colour and quality the standard 
specimens obtained near Pala have been found 
at Meridian, California, but these are smaller 
thao (hose found at Pala; the Meridian spe- 
cimens more nearly resemble the occasional spe- 
cimens of unaltered spodumene found near 
BranchviUe, Connecticut. The Meridian crys- 

15* A Book of Precious Stones 

tale were at first supposed to be tourmaline, but 
were identified by Dr. Kunz; many of these 
crystals were ruined by lapidaries who unsuc- 
cessfully tried to cut them, as the very highly 
facile cleavage of siKMlumene caused the mineral 
to flake. 

Knnzite is entirely distinct from the green 
variety of spodumene (hiddenite), the beautiful 
gem mineral found at Stony Point, Alexandra 
County, North Carolina, and from the trans- 
parent yellow variety reported by a mineral- 
ogist named Pieani to have been found in Brazil, 
and, since its discovery, produced in sufficient 
quantity to come into use as gems. 

Spodumeiie — it is also sometimes called tri- 
plmne — in its general characteristics is a mem- 
ber of the pyroxene group, and is the only gem 
mineral, besides lepidolite and tourmaline, which 
contains a considerable proportion of lithium. 
The chemical composition of spodumene is: 
silica, 64.5; alumina, 27.4; and lithia, 8.4. 
Spodumene is fusible before the blowpipe; its 
hardness is 61/2 to 7; specific gravity, 3.1-3.2; 
lustre, vitreous. Spodumene is commonly white 
or grey, and because of tfiat it was named, the 
word spodumene being derived from the Greek 
spodioa, meaning ash-coloured. Most of the 



spodnmene found is opaque, only the gem 
quality being traoslucent to transpareot. Spo- 
dumeoe crystallises in the monoclinic system, 
and crystals have been found four feet long. 

Until the discovery of kunzite the use of 
spodnmene as a gem was limited to the emerald- 
green hiddenite, named after its discoverer, W. 
E. Hidden. This variety occurs in thin crys- 
tals with tints ranging from colourless to 
yellow and to an emerald green. Five carats 
is aboat the maximum weight of cut hiddenite 
gems; they arc cut into step or table stonea 
to make the most of their dichroism, and to 
avoid the possibility of splitting because of their 
unusually high degree of prismatic cleavage. 

The Brazilian spodumene, the yellow, was 
originally identified as chrysoberyl, and it is 
ufied in jewelry as the last named metal is; 
Bcientific tests will easily distinguish these two 
minerals the one from the other. Some spodu- 
mene of a beautiful blue colour has also been 
foaud in Drazil, near Diamantina. 

KuDzitc, almost 7 in hardness, is transparent 
and pleochroie. Viewed transversely some 
representative crystals were faintly pink; longi- 
tndiaally they presented a rich pale lavender 
colour, approaching amethystine. A character- 

158 A Book of Precious Stones 

istic of knnzite crystals is a pecnliar etching, 
apparently effected with soWents. A nomber 
of Bcientific tests hare revealed in kuoEite a 
remarkable phosphorescence, not possessed by 
other varieties of spodumene similarly tested, 
and its iUuminant powers, excited by its bom* 
bardment with BOntgen rays, and also by the 
proximity of a few Diilligramme? of radium 
bromide, mark this mineral as unique and of 
unusual interest to scientists, in addition to its 
value as a recruit to the first rank of semi- 
precious stones. 

In a description of experiments made upon 
knnzite Sir William Crookes writes; 

Bnt the most iutereeting thing to me is the 
effect of radium on it. A few milligrammes of 
radium bromide brought near the piece of kuc7ite 
makes it glow with a fine yellowish light, whirh 
does not cease immediately on removal of the ra- 
dinm, but persistB for several seconds. 

I have found some diamonds phosphoresce 
brightly under the influence of radium, and have 
been searcUing for a mineral which is equally sen- 
sitive. I think this lilac variety of spodumeoe runs 
the diamond very close, if it does not surpass ic 

The luminosity of kunzite, in response to the 
artificial conditions already known to arooae i^i 



IB thus summed up, 

a sentence, by Dr. 

In a word, kunzite responds to radium, acti- 
nium, RoDtgen and ultra-violet rays; it is thermo- 
luminescent and pyro-electric. Becomea radesoeut 
when mixed in powdered form with radium; be- 
comes incandescent when this mixture is slightly 
heated, and crystals or gems become beautifully 
phosphorescent for, quite a time by passing a 
faradio current through it, or if held between the 
poles of a Holtz machine. 

The sole drawback at present to the increas- 
ing appreciation of kanzite is that the supply, 
according to reports in the jewelry trade in 
New York City, is unequal to the increasing 
demand. In 1907, according to reports of the 
United States Geological Survey, about 126 
pounds of gem spodumene, selected material, 
was obtained from the California gem region, 
but not all of this was the variety kunzite. 
Albert Dabren, a mining engineer, of Madagas- 
car, lias reported that gem kunzite has been 
tonnd there. 



A STONE of many coloora is toHrmaliDe; 
■'' it was introduced into Europe from India 
in 1703 and its name is adapted from turmali, 
its Cingalese uame. Tourmaline ia a widely dis- 
tributed mineral, and its transparent coloured 
varieties, used as gem stones, have attained a 
considerable popularity. The vogue of the tour- 
maline has increased since it was discovered 
in 1820 on Mount Mica near Paris, Maine. The 
tourmaline has also been found in Massa- 
chusetts, California, and New York State. Ita 
principal sources are Ceylon, Burma, Brazil, 
and the Ural Mountains, Siberia; it is also found 
in Moravia, Sweden, and the Isle of Elba. 
Tourmaline occurs in granite, particularly the 
albitic varieties, schists, and dolomite. Crystal- 
lisation of the tourmaline is rhomboliedral, hemi- 
morphic, and the prisms have throe, six, nine, or 
twelve sides. In hardness it is equal to quarts 
and approaches topaz, being 7 to 7.5. I 

T«E SEW rORlf 



B vitreous, it ranges from transparent to opaque, 
and is doubly refractive to a high degree. Its 
cleavage is perfect on the basal plane, break- 
ing with uneven fractures. Its specific gravity 
is from 2.94 to 3.15. 

Tourmaline is one of the most dichroic stones, 
and individual specimeus vary more from others 
in composition and proportion than is the case 
in almost any other mineral- In colour, black 
shading to light brown is the commonest; but 
blue, green, red, and pink are usually desired. 
Some of the shades are very rich; and richness, 
rather than brilliancy, is the quality which 
appeals to the artistic eye of tiie-connoisseur. 
Curious specimens have shown internal shades 
of red and external of green, while others differ 
in colour toward the extremities. Dana <lis- 
linguishes varieties as follows; rubellite, 
shades of red, frequently transparent (two 
of the finest kno^'u specimens of this variety 
are in the British national collection in the 
Natural History Museum at South Kensington, 
England) ; indicolite, indigo blue — Berlin blue, 
the Brazilian sapphire of jewellers; Brazilian 
emerald; chrysolite (or peridot), green and 
irauHpareut ; peridot of Ceylon, honey-yellow ; 
achroite, colourless ; aphrizite, black; and 

i62 A Book of Precious Stones 

colnmnar and black, without cleavage or i 
of fibrous texture. 

Tourmaline heated, like some other minerals 
in which one termination differs in form from 
the other, develops electricity, with the effect of 
making of the ends positive and negative poles. 
Sections of tourmaline crystals cut parallel to 
the axis have the property of polarising light. 
Tourmaline can be fused under the blowpipe to 
a spongy enamel; it melte with borax to trans- 
parent glass. Tourmaline is cat step and bril- 

Twin-coloured tonrmaline is strongly doubly 
refractive ; green shows yellow and greenish 
blue; yellowish green, yellow and green; red- 
dish brown, light and dark brown; red, pink 
and dark red; bine, light and dark blue. The 
green tends toward blue while the blue has a 
greenish tendency. Some brown tourmalines 
have mixed colours. 

In considering shades when selecting tourma- 
lines, a medium bright green is better than the 
lighter or that which appears blackish. The 
pink should be deep and clean, ruby-like. A 
rich amber brown is most desirable of the brown 
shades. Red tourmaline is occasionally so like 
the ruby that it might deceive any but the < 



pert and his recourse to a scieotiGc test; the 
Iiardness of the ruby would of course decide it. 
In its two-colour character, the tourmaline re- 
Bembles the ruby but surpaswes it; the colour of 
the tourmaline is not so deep nor is it so lus- 
trous as the ruby's, but it is frequently more 
transparent. While some red tourmaline re- 
sembles spinel, the latter is singly refractive 
and has a yellow tint. Red topaz is harder and 
of greater specific gravity than red tourmaline. 
The two colours of the topaz are red and yel- 
low while the tourmaline's are rose and dark 
red. Sapphire is harder than tourmaline and 
clear blue, while tourmaline is greenish blue. 
Aquamarine is a water blue and is harder than 
tourmaline, but is of a lower specific gravity. 
The several other colour varieties of tourmaline 
bear sometimes a strong resemblance to other 
stones, bat are easily distinguished by the ex- 
pert, OBualiy without further test than the em- 
ployment of the dichroiscope. Tourmaline has 
Bometimes been confounded with some of the 
fine green diopsides found in New York State. 

Digging for tourmalines, at least in one 
locality, offers the fascination that, in some 
form, seems always present in the mineral in- 
dostriea. One of the earlier sources of supply 


i64 A Book of Precious Stones 

of tonrmalines waa Burma, and an interesting 
description of some of the phases of the quest 
for tourmalines was written by Mr. C. 8. 
George, deputy commissioner for the Ruby Mine 
District, Burma, for the London Tribune. 
Tourmaline, as found there, is in separate crys- 
tals in tlie interstices of granite rock, and men 
with no capital can mine here and do, in a de- 
sultory manner, on the cliance of finding more 
OP less valuable bits by digging down a distance 
of ten feet or less. This was the method of 
mining at the original ruby diggings at Kathe. 
The more modem method is that of sinking a 
vertical shaft four or five feet square. Custom 
allows the proprietor of the shaft to extend his 
workings underground anywhere to a radius of 
five fathoms from the centre of the sliaft. 

A writer — Mr, C. S. George referred to above 
— in the Jeweller'a Circular Weekly states : 

The vein is formed by a vein of white hard gran- 
ite rock, ID the interstices of which the tonrmaline 
is found, at times adhering loosely to the rock, at 
others lying separate in the looee yellowish earth 
that is found with granite. When a vein is once 
found it is followed up as far as possible, subject 
to the five fathom limit. What, however, makes the 
mining so exciting and at the same time keeps the 
industry fluctuating is that the tourmaline crystals 



B fonnd only interniittentl.v in the Tein- One may 
get several in the length of one yard, and then they 
vill unac«'ountably cease. Directly one man etrikea 
a vein yielding crystals every one who can com- 
mences digging along the line of the vein, but it 
is all a toss-up as to whether, when the vein is 
reached, there will be tourmaline therein. Adjoin- 
ing BhaftB give absolntely different results, and it 
is calculated that at least two thirds of the shafts 
sank yield nothing at all, while only an occasional 
one is at all rich. 

Of the sixty-two shafts at the time of Mr. George's 
visit only three were yielding, and of these only 
one had traces of the best quality stone. The veins 
are fairly deep down, none having ever been reached 
at a lesser depth than nine fathoms, while an 
ordinary depth is forty or fifty cubits. When the 
*■ vein *' takes a downward direction it is followed 
as far as possible, but that is rarely over about 
aisty cubits, for at that depth the foulness of the 
air puts the lamps out. 

All the material dug out from the inside shaft 
is pulled up to the surface in small buckets, all 
worked by enormously long pivoted bamboos 
weighted with a counterpoise, and the tourmaline 
is sorted out of hand, the granitic fragments being 
piled in a wall around the month of the shaft. 

The folk-lore of tourmaline tells ns that both 
the introduction of this beantiful and multi- 
phase mineral to the knowledge and apprecia- 
tion of mankind, and its discovery in America, 
were due to children. Soon after the year 1700, 

i66 A Book of Precious Stones 

some children in Holland were playing in a 
court-yard on a summer day with a few bright- 
coloured stones indifferently given to them by 
some lapidaries, who evidently had not classi- 
fied, or invested them with any particular value 
or significance. The children's keenness of ob- 
servation revealed that when their bright play- 
things became heated by the sun's rays, they 
attracted and held ashes and straws. The 
children appealed to their parents for enlighten- 
ment as to the cause of this mysterious prop- 
erty; but they were unable to explain or to 
identify the stones, giving them, however, the 
name of aschentreckers or ash-drawers, which 
for a long time clung to these tourmalines. 

The story of the tourmaline in the western 
hemisphere is an object-lesson for those adults 
who have no indulgence for the scientific enter- 
prise of the young, or faith in the possibility 
of valuable results from their immature in- 
vestigation. The principal source of the best 
American tourmalines is a mine on Mount Mica 
at Paris, Maine. Gem tourmalines were dis- 
covered on Mount Mica on an autumn day in 
1820 by two boys, Elijah L. Hamlin and Ezekiel 
Holmes, amateur mineralogists. When nearing 
home from a fatiguing local prospecting expedi- 



^■oD, tliej discovered some gleaming green suli- 
Btance at the root of a tree, and investigation 
rewarded them with a fine green tourmaline. 
A snowstorm prevented a further search, but 
the following spring they returned to their 
*' claim " and secured a number of fine crystals. 
Tourmalines from Mount Mica are found in 
pockets in pegmatitic granite, overlaid by mica 
schist, which has since to some extent been 
stripped off to facilitate this interesting min- 
eral industry. Black tourmaline, muscovite, and 
lepidolite are found in this Pine Tree State 
treasure bouse. More than fifty thousand dol- 
lars' worth of tourmalines have been extracted 
from the mine resulting from this boyish dis- 
covery. While this sum of money is not great 
in comparison with the financial results of many 
mineral industries, the output has included very 
many specimens of rare beauty that have en- 
riched the collections of royalty, wealtliy private 
connoisseurs of precious stones, and of greut 
public museums and educational institutions. 

The strong dichroism of the tonrmalioe and 
ita variety of colour composition and otlier re- 
markable properties make it one of the most 
interesting minerals in Nature's storehouse, and 
led Euskin to write In his Ethics of the Dust, 

1 68 A Book of Precious Stones 

in a fanciful effort to describe its harlequin 
composition : 

A little of everything; there's always flint and 
clay and magnesia in it; and the black is iron ac- 
cording to its fancy; and there's boracic acid, if 
yon know what that is, and if yon don't, I cannot 
tell yon to-day, and it does n't signify ; and there 's 
potash and soda; and on the whole, the chemistry 
of it is more like a mediseval doctor's prescription 
flian the making of a respectable mineral. 


lyi LTHOUQH the ornamental uses of amber 
are to a great exfeut outside tlie realm 
of personal adornment, ita conversion into beads, 
for necklaces espeeiallj, is of such ancient ori- 
gin, and these ornaments have always been so 
favoured, that this fossil vegetable resin is, libe 
the pearl and coral, included in the realm of 
gems which are, with these exceptions, and the 
diamond, which is carbon, purely mineral. Like 
the pearl and coral, amber is identified in the 
popular conception with the sea, from whence 
a small proportion of the amber acquired by 
man has been derived. 

To use the words of Dr. Max Gauer: "This 
material, so much used for personal ornaments, 
JB not strictly speaking a mineral at all, being 
of vegetable origin, and consisting of the more 
or less considerably altered resin of extinct 
It resembles minerals in its occurrence 
tbe beds of the earth's crust, and for that 

A Book of Precious Stones 

peaBon may be considered, like other varieties 
of fossil resin, of which it is the most import- 
ant, aa aa appendix to minerals." 

Archaeological discoveries reveal that amber 
was known to and favoured by prehistoric peo- 
ples, such as the Egyptians and cave-dwellers 
of Switzerland. Amber is believed to have been 
taken from the Baltic by the seafaring Phoeni- 
cians, and the old Greeks called it elektron, 
from whence comes our modern word electricity. 

True amber — Succinum electrum (Dana) — 
the succinite of mineralogists, is the resin of a 
coniferous tree which was of the vegetable life 
of the Miocene age of the Tertiary period in 
geology. The late Professor Goeppert, of Bres- 
lau christened the principal amber-yielding tree 
the Pinites succinifcr. The vegetable origin of 
amber has not been definitely established in 
science, but one of the evidences that it was a 
flowing vegetable resin, that is accepted as indis- 
putable, is the oft-occurring presence in amber 
of insects, or parts of them, which must have 
been caught and imprisoned when the fresh 
resin was fluent. Wherever amber is fonnd in 
the earth, it is in association with hrown-coal 
or lignite. 

Amber, or succinite, then, is a fossil resin 



occnrring in irregnlar maascB with no cleavage 
and having a conclioidal fracture. Colour yel- 
low, some specimens reddish, brownisli, whitish, 
or cloudy and occasionally fluorescent, with a 
bine or green tinge; hardness, 2 to 3.5; specific 
gravity, 1.05 to 1.09; brittle; lustre, resinous to 
waxy; transparent to opaque; negatively elec- 
trified by friction. Amber is inflammable with 
a rich yellow flame and it emits an aromatic 
odour; heated to 150 degrees C. it softens, and 
melts at about 250 degrees C. giving off dense 
white pungent fumes. In alcohol it is soluble. 
The chemical constituents of amber, in one hun- 
dred parts are: carbon 78.96, hydrogen 10.51, 
oxygen 10.52. 

Amber is found on the Baltic, Adriatic, and 
Sicilian coasts; in France, China, India, and in 
North America. 

Always within man's memory or knowledge, 
nodules of amber have been cast up on the 
shores of the Baltic Sea, especially along the 
Prussian coast, and their collection and sale 
has afforded a livelihood for the local inhabi- 
tants. This is called "sea stone," or "sea 
amber," and it is usually uniform and, being 
nncontaminated by associated substances, is 
superior in quality to that which is mined. 

172 A Book of Precious Stones 

This flotsam amber is often entangled in sea- 
weed and this— called " scoop stone " — is col- 
lected in nets. In marshy spots, monnted men, 
called " amber riders," follow the ebbing tide 
and profitably search for the fossil resin thus 
exposed. The weight of amber being about the 
same as sea-water, agitation of the water con- 
taining it is sufficiently effective for its flota- 
tion. About 1860, it being evident to geologists 
that the sea-amber came from the strata under- 
neath, it was sought on the adjacent terra firma 
by modern mining methods, and the operations 
have resulted in an established suecessfal in- 

The most highly prized amber comea from 
Sicily. Professor Oliver Cumminga Farrington, 
in hia book Oems and Oem Mineralu, states that 
eight hundred dollars have been paid for pieces 
of Sicilian amber no larger than walnuts. The 
Sicilian amber reveals a varied colonr display 
including blood-red and chrysolite-green, which 
are often fluorescent, glowing internally with 
a light of different colour from the exterior. 
The advantages of amber, despite its softness, 
Inclnde its remarkable durabili^. 



JLOODSTONE, or heliotrope, representing 
the month of March in the list of natal 
stonea, symbolic of courage and wisdom, and 
the centre of much legendary interest, is one 
of the most attractive of the green varieties of 
that almost omnipresent mineral, quartz. The 
scieDtific terminology of quartz is involved and 
complicated by differing authorities in min- 
eralogy, but bloodstone is a massive variety 
generally classed as plasma, a name, however, 
that is applied by some to green chalcedony and 
by others to green jasper; this curious mineral 
contains spots of red jasper that resemble drops 
of blood, and to which it owes its name. One 
of the most striking traditions which concern 
bloodstone is that it originated at the crucifix- 
ion of Christ, from drops of blood drawn by 
the spear thrust by a Roman soldier into his 
side, which fell on a piece of dark green jasper. 
The body of bloodstone is translucent to opaqae 

174 A Book of Precious Stones 

and of a dark-green colour. Quartz, a» iH nieo- 
tioned elsewhere in connection with its gem- 
stone varieties, crystallises in the hexagonal sys- 
tem ; hardness, 7 ; specific gravity, 2.5 to 2.8 
— the purest kinds 2.65. Pure quartz is silica; 
the varied colonrs and characters of the many 
gem-stone varieties are due wholly or partly to 
contents of iron, alumina, manganese, niclcel, 
and other chromatic constituents. The red 
spots in bloodstone are simply oxide of iron. 
The specific name, heliotrope, is favoured by 
Dana, among other mineralogists. " Helio- 
trope " is a word derived from two Greek words 
meaning " sun-turning," and refers to the belief 
that the stone when immersed in water would 
change the image of the sun to blood-red. The 
water was also reputed to boil and upturn the 
experimental utensils containing this submerged 
weird mineral. 

This opaque, but slightly lustrous, jaspery 
quartz, although a beautiful and interesting 
mineral, is not extensively used now in jewelry, 
and a requisition for it is usually an idiosyn- 
crasy, or because it is a natal stone for those 
who were born in the month of March. Hardy, 
tough, yet carved with facility, it is well adapted 
to signet rings and is usually seen beuingj 



wta or monogranis. The ancient Egyptians 
and Babylonians used the blocNJatone extensively 
for seals. Outside the realm of jewelry it 
supplies a Que material for artistic cups, 
small rases, and statuettes. In the French 
Royal Collection in Paris is a bust of Jesus 
Christ in bloodstone, so executed that the red 
spota of the stone most realistically resemble 
drops of blood. Another fine specimen of carv- 
ing is a bead of Christ in the Field Columbian 
Museum, Chicago. 

The supply of bloodstone is derived almost 
entirely from India, especially from the Kathia- 
war Peninsula. Other sources are in Australia 
aud Brazil. Bloodstone docs occur, but uuim- 
portantiy, in Europe; fine specimens are found 
at several places in Scotland, especially in the 
basalt of the Isle of Bum. 




ly^OSS AGATE is a variety of chalcedonic 
^ " * quartz that has some vogue in the jew- 
elry of to-day, and is one of the most interest- 
ing features of gem mineralogy. Enclosed in 
this stone are what seem to he long hairs and 
fibres, usually irregularly interwoven, and hav- 
ing the effect of various species of moss. These 
branching forms, so imitative of one of the most 
beautiful of plants, are manganese or iron oxide, 
and not imprisoned vegetation, or prehistoric in- 
sects which really were imprisoned in amber, 
and have been preserved through ages to furnish 
food for speculation for latter-day naturalists. 

The name agate is derived from the river 
Achates, in Sicily, now called the Drillo, in the 
Val de Noto. Theophrastus states that this is 
where ancient agates were found. 

Moss agates and Mocha stones are varieties of 

crypto-orystalline (obscurely crystalline) quartx 

of fibrous structure, and are slightly softer and 


Moss Agate 


lighter than crystallised quartz. The hardness 
of firypto-crystalliDe quartz is 6.5; specific grav- 
ity, 2.6; it 18 more difficult to break than crys- 
talline quartz, being very tough, which makes 
these varieties— their principal differences being 
of colour and colour-pattern — eminently fit for 

The finest moss agates known to-day come 
from India, and those specimens called " mocha 
stone " originally came, it is believed, from the 
vicinity of Mocba, an Arabian seaport at the 
entrance of the Red Sea most famous for its 
aromatic coffee. The Oriental moss agates are 
common in the volcanic rocks (trap rock) of 
western India, occurring with Mocha stone. 
Blocks weighing as high as thirty pounds have 
been obtained. It occurs also as pebbles in 
many Indian rivers. From China has come, 
during recent years, a supply of natural green 
and artificial yellow and red moss agates, which 
have, to a considerable extent, replaced others 
on the market. Fine moss agates are abundant 
in various parts of the Rocky Mountains; the 
best are found in the form of rolled pebbles in 
the beds of streams. As souvenirs, and for 
sentimental reasons of local interest, these 
beautiful gem stones of our Rocky Monntain 

178 A Book of Precious Stones 

States are cut and mounted; in the tourist the 
Western jeweller and curio-dealer finds for these 
American moss agates a good customer. 

Mocha stone (" tree stone" or dendritic 
agate) is a white or grej chalcedony showing 
hrown, red, or black dendritic markings re- 
sembling trees and plants. These have been 
formed bj the percolation of a solution contain- 
ing iron or manganese through the flue fissures 
of the stone, and the subsequent deposition of 
the colouring matter originally held in solution. 
The brown and red markings are caused by 
oxide of iron, and the black by ozide of 

Agate in general is but little used in modeni 
jewelry, but for art objects and interior archi- 
tectural decoration it is always in demand. 
For centuries, the centre of the industry of 
cutting and polishing agate has been Oberstein, 
Germany; an authentic record shows that this 
industry has existed there since 1497; the in- 
dustry has for many years been shared by the 
neighbouring town of Idar. The subject of 
agate, its origin, mining, treatment, and use in 
the arts, might worthily supply material for an 
extensive book. 







^"j^^NYX and sardonyx are varieties of agate 
^^ with layers in even planes of uniform 
thickness, thus adapting them to the purposes 
of cameo engravers. The caaieo has a base of 
one colour and the figure of another. The art 
of cameo engraving attained a point nearest 
perfection with the ancient Romans, evidence 
being supplied by the numerous relics, that are 
the admiration of modern artists. The word 
onyx means a finger-nail, and was f^iggested, 
it is supposed, by a fancied resemblance to the 
lustre and appearance of a finger-nail. Of course 
— if (he Greek myth be trne — this most heauti- 
fnl instance of stratification in all mineral 
nature owes its origin to the freak of playful 
Cupid, and is the only visible and palpable evi- 
dence we have of the mundane visits of the 
OoddesB of Beauty. 

Sardonyx is a variety of onyx in which one 
layer has the brown colour of sard. Chalce- 

i8o A Book of Precious Stones 

iflonjs and carDelionyx derive their names from 
tlie colours of the intervening layers. " Mexican 
onyx," it should be noted, is calcite, not quartz, 
and is very much softer than the real onyx. 
Mexican onyx has a similar banded strnctnre 
to real onjx, and is well adapted to architectural 
or interior decoration, for which it is extensirely 
used, but it is outside the realm of precious 

Because of their porous nature, varieties of 
agate can be easily artificially coloured, and 
this art has been developed to perfection in Ger- 
many, where some of the processes, as " trade 
secrets," are important phases of the general 
agate-preparing industry at Oberstein and Idar. 
The art of colouring agate, which natnrally is 
mostly of a dingy grey colour, was derived from 
old Borne. Brazilian agate, the material exteo- 
sively worked now in Germany, is softer than 
the German varieties that formerly constituted 
the principal supply, and is particularly sus- 
ceptible to successful colouring by the scientific 
German processes. 

The onyxes best suited for cameo engraving, 
besides onyx projwr, are chalcedony-onyx, 
camelian-onyx, and sardonyx. These are cut 

' So as to display a white or liglit figure against 
a darker coloured background. Cameoa are 
mostlj engraved in Paris and Italy, but tlie 
plates of onyx used by tliese cameo engravers are 
prepared at Oberstein and Idar. Tbe tool of 
the cameo engraver is known as a style. 

Perhaps the most famous stone cameo in his- 
tory was that sardonyx upon which Queen 
Elizabeth's portrait was cut, set in the famous 
ring which she gave tbe Earl of Essex as a 
pledge of her friendship. When sentenced to 
death, Essex sent this ring to his cousin, Lady 
Scroop, to deliver to Elizabeth. By mistake tbe 
messenger gave the ring to Lady Scroop's sister, 
Countess Nottingtiam, an enemy of the Earl; 
the vengeful Countess did not deliver the talis- 
manic ring, and in consequence tlie fated Earl 
was executed. The Countess Xottingbam con- 
fessed this act of vengeance to Elizabeth when 
the Countess was on her death-bed; which, ac- 
cording to the chroniclers of Elizabeth's life 
history, so infuriated tbe Queen that she shook 
the dying noblewoman, saying, " God may for- 
give you, but I cannot." 

Sardonyx — supposed by the ancients to be an 
entirely different mineral from onyx — was be- 

1 82 A Book of Precious Stones 

lieved to have the i>ower of conferring eloquence 
ui>on its wearers; it symbolised conjugal bliss. 
In Revelations it is named as one of the stones 
in the foundations of the Holy City. 



THE mineral world contains maoy beautiful 
materials that are witlioat the pale wbieli 
eooloscs the clearlj defined gem gtones ; these 
" oatlanders " may be classed as semi-precioua 
stones that are only occasionally used, and while 
many are truly beautiful and others are in- 
teresting, because of rarity or peculiarities, all 
lack some quality — usually a sufficient degree of 
hardness — which would admit them into the 
patrician rank of Precious Stones. Because of 
their intense scientific interest, technical min- 
eralogists, who have written books about gems, 
not only include but devote considerable space 
to minerals that will not meet the eye of one 
manufacturing jeweller or gem dealer in one 
hundred, or ever be seen by one gem buyer in 
thousands. These stones are usually not so 
rare in nature as they are in stores, and their 
cutting and mounting is usually the t-esult of 
an individaal order; otherwise they are col- 

1 86 A Book of Precious Stones 

AZUBITE is a variety of carboDate of copper 
which BhowH various shades of azure, merging 
iuto Berlin blue. Azurite is botli opaque and 
soft — hardness, 4 — and these characteristics 
limit its use for gem purposes. 

BENITOITE. A newly discovered gem min- 
eral of California, blue in colour, and said, when 
selected crystals are cut in the riglit direction, 
to rival the sapphire in colour and to excel the 
blue corundum gem in brilliancy. The IniQe^a^ 
is dichroic, the ordinary ray colourless, the ex- 
traordinary ray blue. Benitoite crystallises in 
the hexagonal fiystem, trigonal division; its 
most common habit is pyramidal; cleavage, im- 
perfect pyramidal; fracture, conchoidal to sub- 
conchoidal; hardness, 6 to 61^; highly refrac- 
tive. Benitoite fuses to a transparent glass at 
about 3. It is easily attacked by hydrofluoric 
acid. Chemically, benitoite is a very acid titano- 
silicate of barium. Benitoite was discovered in 
1907 by Mr. Hawkins and T. Edwin Sanders in 
the Mt. Diabolo range near the San Benito- 
Fresno County line. The mineral was deter- 
mined at the University of California, and is 
described in a bulletin of its geological depart- 
ment by George Davis Louderback and Waltiir 
C. Blasdala 

Semi-Precious Stones 


CAIRNGORM is the brown variety of rock 
crystal, also called " smoky topaz." Cairngorm 
has a sentimental and historic interest involved 
in its Qse as an ornament (op the weapons and 
picturesque clan dress of the Scottish High- 

CAKNELIAN is a reddish variety of chalce- 
dony, merging into greyish red, yellow, and 
brown; it is translucent, like horn. Caruelian 
takes a high polish and its colours are some- 
times heightened by exposure to the sun or by 
heat. This attractive semi-precious stone was 
formerly much more extensively used than now, 
and its merits may, through the vagaries of 
fancy and fasliion, which govern the fates of 
all gems, again raise it higher in popular favour. 

CHONDROSITE, a mineral that is found 
abundantly at the Tilly Foster mine in Brewster, 
Putnam County, New York, appears in deep 
garnet-red crystals of great beauty. Chondron- 
ite is classed with the minor gems, and it de- 
Nerves a more extensive use. Hardness, 6.5. It 
ha« a vitreous lustre. 

DIOPSIDE is a variety of pyroxene; hard- 
ness, 5 to fi; lustre, vitreous or greasy; trans- 
parent to translucent; and doubly refractive. 
Fiue specimens, fit for gem purposes, are found 

1 88 A Book of Precious Stones 

near DeKalb, St. Lawrence County, New 
When cut brilliant, diopside makes a very at- 
tractive stone and resemblea green tourmaline. 

DIOPTASE is a silicate of copper; other 
names for it are achirite and Congo emerald; 
hardness, 5. The softness and brittleness of 
this attractive stone disqualify it for extensive 

FLUORITE or fluorspar, of which chloro- 
phane or cobra stone is a variety, ia a highly 
lustrous, brittle crystal of wide colour range; 
hardness, 4. Varieties of fluorspar are some 
times termed, in the trade, " false " rob] 
erald, sapphire, and other well-knoi 

GOLD-QUARTZ— in crystals, aliform, Tt0^ 
nlated, and arborescent shapes — is commonly 
worn as a jewel. Gold penetrating white, 
black, rose, and amethystine quartz, is workeJ 
into jewelry of all sorts, sometimes of very 
elaborate designs. These nses of gold-qnartz 
are most common on the Paciflc coaat and in 
western North American cities. 

HEMATITE, composed of iron 70, oxygeo 
30, is commonly cat into beads, charms, and 
intaglios. Chromic iron and ilmenite are aimi- 
larly used. Although this iron ore is ateeli^^f 

are some 

)rm, re»i 





NEW yosK ^^^^^1 



Semi-Precious Stones 




Vbeo polisheil, its atreak, when scratched, ia 
red; Lente the name hematite, meaniDg " biood- 

lOLITE, also called dichroite and water sap- 
phire, is a pleochroic mineral occasionally c'lit 
for gem parposea. It is somewhat harder than 

JET is a soft compact light coal of a lostrons 
velvet black colour, and can be higblj polished. 
It is nsed not polished for mourning goods. Jet 
was the agates of the ancients, their source of 
mipply being near the river Gagas in Syria, 
from which tlie name of the mineral was de- 

LABRADORITE, sometimes, in the trade, 
calletl labrador, is a feldspar. Because of its 
Btrnoture some of the varieties of labradorite 
reveal a wonderful variety of colours. Labra- 
dorite can be highly polished and exhibits 
heaatiful chatoyant reflections. 

I^\riS-LAZULI was long regarded as a 
separate specific mineral; it was the sapphire of 
the Greeks, Romans, and the Hebrew Scriptures. 
Instead of being a simple mineral, lapis-lazuli 
consists of a bluish substance (lazurlte) with 
granular calcite, scapolite, diopside, amphibole 
mica, pyrite, etc. The hardness of lapis-lazuli 

I90 A Book of Precious Stones 

IB 5.5; specific gravity, alwiit 2 to 4; lustre, 
vitreous; translucent to opaque. 

LAVA can bardly be classed as a semi-precious 
stone, but it ie^ and has been quite extensively 
utilised in jewelry, cliiefly on account of senti- 
mental association with, and as souvenirs of, vol- 
canoes. Lava is the fusion of various mineral 
substances due to the heat and force of erup- 
tions from the interior of the earth; it varies 
in structure and constituents, but the surface 
lava is usually massive with vesicular or porous 
marks; fracture, splintery and coDchoidal; 
lustre, dull or glistening; it is opaque and of 
various colours and shades. Lava freqaently 
contains crystals — feldspar, lenate, hornblende, 
garnet, and other minerals. Vesuvian lava of 
a blue tint resembles transparent enamel, and 
is mounted in brooches and rings; cameos and 
intaglios are sometimes cut on it, 

MAGNETITE, or lodestone, possessing polar- 
ity, is used for charms, because of the mystical 
properties attributed to it. 

MALACHITE is carbonate of copper of a 
bright green colour. When this copper ore oc- 
curs in conjunction with azurite, the companion 
minerals are cut together, with a pleasing effect 

OBSIDIAN is compact volcanic glass, and is 

B Semi 

Hnt for gem purj 

Semi-Precious Stones 


; for gem purposes to a greater extent tban 
some of the other semi-precious stones here re- 
ferred to. Varieties are moldaTite, or bottle 
stone, of a green colour; marekanite or moun- 
tain mahogany, a red or black and brown banded 
kind; and Iceland agate; pearlylite; and spba?r- 

PHENACITE, of gem quality, is transparent, 
coltmrless, and of a vitreous lustre. This bril- 
liant mineral is harder, heavier, and more 
refractive than qnartz, which it so closely re- 
Bcmbles, so that it was not until 1833 that 
mineralogists differentiated between them. Its 
name, plienacite, is derived from the Greek word 
phetiax, meaning a deceiver. Pbenacite remotely 
resembles tlie diamond in its brilliancy and re- 
fract iveness. Some specimens exhibit pale-rose 
and wine-yellow colours, 

PYRITE is a brass-yellow mineral of metallic 
lustre known to jewellers as sulphur-stone and 
technically as marcasite. It is a common min- 
eral, and is so frequently mistaken by the un- 
informed for gold that it has earned the so- 
briquet " fool's gold." Pyrite is a sulphide of 
iron. Although so common as to have no in- 
trinsic value, pyrite constantly remains in use 
in jewelry and is seen in rings, brooches, and 

194 A Book of Precious Stones 

at Matura, Ceylon. Colourless or amokj ^- 
cons are called jargons or jargooiia. X^Bijtt 
parent zircons of a brownish, red-orange csiMI 
are called hyacinth or jacinth. Zircon isi^Hl 
heaviest gem mineral — more than four tiBiai^jliJI 
weight of water — ^its specific gravily being i^li 
to 4.86. Its hardness is 7%. So hi^^ teljl 
index of refraction — 1.92 — that it approiicMft 
the diamond in brilliancy when cut ^icamkM 
gem quality come mostly from Ceylon, wbtn 
they are found in the form of rolled pebbte 
Zircon is found in various American localitiei^ 
but it is opaque. 



, TV31V 




DKECIOUS stones in tlie rough are seldom 
* tilings of beauty. The most valuable gem 
stones might be dismissed with contemptoous 
glance by an inexperienced finder, as no doubt 
has often been the case. Ancient gems that 
have been benefited only to the extent of the 
crude handiwork of the artisans of their period, 
reveal but little of the imprisoned chromatic 
beauty and flaming splendour that would make 
them magnificent under the scientific and artis- 
tic treatment of a modern diamond-cutter or 
lapidary. Thus the work of the highly skilled 
artisans, who cut diamonds, with their co- 
operators, who set the diamond in a tool with 
which the cutter applies the rough stone to the 
grinding wheel, and the toil of the lapidary, 
who cuts, forms, and polishes semi-precioua 
stones, are of the greatest importance in making 
possible the beauty and value of gems. Here 
it may be said that the craft of the diamoDd 

196 A Book of Precious Stones 

cutter and the trade of the lapidary are ab- 
solutely separate and distinct in tlie methods 
that each employs in cutting and polishing gem 
minerals. The diamond cutter cuts diamonds 
only. The lapidary cuts and polishes all other 
precious and semi-precious etones. Both dia- 
mond cutter and lapidary prepare the way for 
the craft of the jeweller, to whose judgment and 
art in design and manufacture the cut gem owes 
its environment, which will go far to increase 
or mar its beauty. For the jewellers' art is as 
important to the gem as the scenic artist's and 
stage manager's is to the actor's dramatic art; 
and without intelligent co-operation, the jew- 
eller might detract from the appearance of a 
gem that the capable diamond cutter or lapi- 
dary has done bo much to enhance. 

Thus the cutting of gem stones is necessary 
for the full development of the inherent prop- 
erties upon which their beauty is dependent. 
A gem, as extracted from the earth, may be 
opaque, irregular in form, and contain super- 
ficial flaws and imperfections; but when relieved 
of its incrustations and reduced to a size that 
wonld permit of the elimination of its imperfect 
portions, it becomes transparent and fts im- 
prisoned fires are released in brilliant Bashes. 

Cutting Diamonds and Other Gems 197 

Occasionally a gem does appear which, witliout 
artifice, may plainly aliow its qualificatinns for 
high rank in the conrt of gema; but, in the 
main, tlie development of its beauty to a high 
degree necessitates cutting and polishing. The 
highly specialised work of the diamond cutter 
or lapidary involves compliance with geomet- 
rical principles and rules; adaptation to the 
place occupied by the gem stone under treat- 
ment; a knowledge of the clearly defined science 
of crystallography, especially with regard to 
the planes of cleavage; careful considera- 
tion of the stone's degree of hardness, brit- 
tleness, and a thorough acquaintance with 
the established forms of cutting and the re- 
sults achieved through them with different 
kinds of gem minerals and their chromatic 

The art of gem-cutting has progressed grad- 
ually from tlie crudest beginning. Man's first 
attempts to artificially improve the appearance 
of gem stones extended only to polishing the 
natural surfaces; later, the worker essayed to 
round the rough corners, and in the course of 
the evolution of this art, efforts were made to 
reduce the stone to a symmetrical shape. Gem- 
cutting by Oriental workmen, in the island of 

A Book of Precious Stones 

Ce;Ion, Burma, and India, has, even no^ 
vanced but little beyond its crude beginniDgs. 
Tlie Asiatic artisan usea a polishing disc on tJio 
left end of a horizontal wooden axle, which re- 
volves in sockets on two upright pegs driven 
into the earth or set in the timbers or boards 
which floor his dwelling or shop. The motor 
for this machine is a long stick to which a cord 
is tied, as to a bow, at each end, one turn hav- 
ing been taken around the axle; the motive 
power is supplied by the right hand and arm of 
the operator, who moves the stick back and 
forth ; there is usually no holding tool ; the 
stone is held in the fingers of the left hand and 
thus pressed against the surface of the polish- 
ing wheel. The abrasive powders of corundotn 
or some mineral nearly as hard, mixed with 
water to a paste of suitable consistency, are at 
hand, contained in the halves of cocoannt sheU& 
The earliest record of the artificial improvemflnt 
of gems by the ancient Greek and Roman arti- 
sans proves them to have had higher ideals and 
more invention than Orientals, especially In the 
matter of imparting to stones symmetrical forma; 
the greatest advance they made, howei 
the treatment of gem minerals, was in 
in cutting cameos and intaglios, their 

Cutting Diamonds and Other Gems 199 

^jf gems Laving earlj reached a surprisinglj' high 

^Hjbte of perfection. 

^^The centres of the art and industry of dia- 
mond-cutting are at Amsterdam in Holland and 
Antwerp in Belgium, but the very highest form of 
the art was initiated in and is practised in these 
United States; here, without senseless waste and 
extravagance, the intrinsic value of precious 
stones, as determined by their weights, is sac- 
rificed to artistic effect, beauty, and brilliancy. 
This high degree of gem treatment is in strong 
contrast with the more economical practice in 
Enrope, and is the antithesis of the custom in 
Oriental countries, where weight is conserved 
at the expense of brilliancy and beauty. 

The styles of cut may be grouped as follows: 
1, those bounded by plane surfaces only ; 2, 
those bounded by curved surfaces only; 3, those 
bounded by both carved and plane surfaces. 
The styles of the first group are best applicable 
to transparent stones, as the diamond, emerald, 
and ruby; they are brilliant cut, double brilliant 
or Lisbon cut, half brilliant or single cut, trap 
or split brilliant cut, Portuguese cut, star cut, 
rose cut, or briolette, step brilliant or mixed 
cut, table cut, and the twentieth-century cut; 
UiiB is a combination of facets that was experi- 

zoo A Book of Precious Stones 

mented with Imt not very successfully aboQ 
year 1903. Styles of tlie second and third . 
groups are best adapted to translucent and 
opaque stones, such as the opal, turquoise, moon- 
stone, and cat's-eye. Both the first and second 
styles are applied to garnets, which are cut 
either with facets or convex (or en cabochon), 
and when thus cut they are termed carbuncles. 
The styles of the second group are bounded by 
curved surfaces; they are the single cabochon 
cut, double cabochon cut, hollow cabochon cut, 
and tallow top cabochon cat. The third divi- 
sion of styles are those bounded by curved and 
plane surfaces, represented by the mixed cabo- 
chon cut. 

The brilliant cut could be represented by two 
truncated pyramids, placed base to base; the 
upper pyramid, the cr^wn, is truncated in a 
manner to give a large plane surface; the lower 
one, the pavilion, ends almost in a point. Xbe 
line of junction of the bases of the two pyramida 
is called the girdle. While there are many 
modifications of this style, as to the _ 
mutual proportions, and number of fa« 
facets in the perfect brilliant number I 
eight. The top facet is called the table, i 
is formed by removing one third of the thick- 


Cutting Diamonds and Other Gems 201 

□ess of the fnndamental octahedron; the bottom 
facet is called tbe culet^ or collet, and is formed 
by removing one eighteenth part of tlie stone's 
thickness. The triangular facets touching tbe 
table or summit of the crown are called star 
facets; those touching the girdle are divided into 
two groups, skill facets and skew facets. The 
comer facets touching the table and tbe 
girdle, when on the crown, and the culet and 
girdle, when on the pavilion, are called, respec- 
tively, hezel or bisel facets, and pavilion facets. 
A summary of the number of facets and their 
distribution is as follows: 1 table, 16 skill 
facets, 16 skew facets, 8 star facets, 8 quoins, 
4 bezel facets, 4 pavilion facets, and one culet. 
Sometimes tbe cut is modified by adding extra 
facets around the culeti, making i3ixty-six in all. 
The brilliant cut is especially applicable to 
the diamond; when perfect it should be pro- 
portioned as follows: Prom the table to the 
girdle, one third, and from the girdle to the 
culet two thirds of the total. The diameter of 
the table should be four ninths of the breadth 
of the stone. These proportions when applied 
to other stones than the diamond are modified 
tn suit the individual optical constants of the 

202 A Book of Precious Stones 

The double brilliant, or LiBbon cut, is a form 
with two rows of lozenge-sbaped facets, and 
three rows of triangalar-sbaped facets, seventy- 
four in all. 

The lialf brilliant, single, or old English cnt 
is the simplest form of the brilliant and in now 
generally employed for small stonea; when the 
top is cut 80 as to form an eight-pointed star 
it is called the English single cut. 

The trap brilliant, or split brilliant, differs 
from the brilliant in having the foundation 
squares divided horizontally into two triangular 
facets, forty-two in all. 

The Portuguese cut has two rows of rhom- 
boidal and three rows of triangular facets above 
and below the girdle. 

In the star cut the table is hexagonal in 
shape, and is one fourth of the diameter of the 
stone; from the table spring six equilateral 
triangles, whose apexes touch the girdle, and 
these triangles, by the prolongation of their 
points, form a star. 

The crown of the rose cut consists of triangu- 
lar or star facets, whose apexes meet at the 
point or crowQ of the rose. The base lines of these 
star facets form the base lines for a row of 
skill facets whose apexes touch the girdle, leav- 

Cutting Diamonds and Other Gems 203 

ing spaces which are cot into two facets. The 
may be either flat or the bottom may be 

[t like the crown, making a double rose or 
briolette cut. The shape of a rose-eut stone 
may be circular, oval, or, indeed, any other to 
which the rough stone may be adapted. 

In the trap or etep cut, the facets extend 
longitudinally around the stone from the table 
to the girdle, and from the girdle to the culet. 
There are usually but two or three tiers of step 
facets from the table to the girdle, while the 
number of steps from the girdle to the culet 
depends upon the thickness and colour of the 
atone. This style of cut is best adapted to 
coloured stones. 

The form of the step brilliant, or mixed cut, 
from culet to girdle is the same as that of the 
trap cut, while from the girdle to the table the 

rme is brilliant cnf, or the opposite. 
The table cut consists of a greatly developed 
table and culet meeting the girdle with bevelled 
edgea Occasionally the eight-edge facets are 
replaced hy a border of sixteen or more facets. 

The twentieth-century cut contains more 
facets than the brilliant and is differently 
shaped and arranged. Originally this style was 
designed with eighty-eight facets and propor- 

204 A Book of Precious Stones 

tioDS similar to the American brilliaiit, but with 
a greater height from the girdle to the centre 
of the table, caused by the facets replacing the 
table being carried to a low pyramidal point in 
the centre. Subsequently the style was modi- 
fied, the stone being cut thinner and with but 
eighty facets, the central top facets being al- 
most Sat. This cut is helpful in some cases, 
especially to shallow stones, but it probably 
exceeds the limit of efficiency in the effort to 
increase the surface reflection and dispersion of 
light rays, and experience has not demonstrated 
its success. 

The cabochon cuts represent different degrees 
of convexity above the girdle, and beneath a 
concave, plane, or slightly convex surface. The 
double cabochon is customarily cut with a 
smaller curvature on the base than on the crown. 
The single cabochon is a characteristic cut for 
the turquoise. The hollow cabochon is best for 
deep-coloured transparent stones. The mixed 
cabochon has either the edge or side, or both, 
faceted. The degree of convexity in the various 
cabochon cuts is made to depend upon the na- 
ture of the stone to which the cut is to be 
applied. The cabochon cuts are specifically 
Vithin the province of the lapidary. 

tutting Diamonds and Other Gems 205 

The process of cutting gems is simple, but 
the results are due to tlie skill and especially 
to the judgment of the cutter. That part of the 
surface of a rongh stone at which it is desired 
to place a facet is rubbed with a harder stone 
or with some other effective substance. The 
ler stone or substance abrades small frag- 
ts and powder from the softer, and grad- 
nally the surface of the subject mineral is 
transformed into a plane face, or facet. In like 
manner other facets are added or a rounded 
surface is prodaced by similar means. In 
grinding, the harder stone or abrasive material 
is reduced to a fine powder and mixed with 
olive oil into a paste (it diamond jrowder), or 
with water (if emery), and placed near the 
edge of a circular disk, or " lap," which is about 
twelve inches in diameter and an inch in thick- 
ness. The lap, usually of metal, revolves hori- 
zontally with great velocity, and the precious 
stone to be ground is pressed against the disk 
where the disk is loaded with the abrasive paste; 
the pressure causes the powder to become em- 
bedded in the soft metal of the disk. This acts 
an a file, equal in hardness to the grinding 
powder. The duration of the ojwration depends 
upon the hardness of the precious stone and of 

zo6 A Book of Precious Stones 

the abrasive material. The skill required of the 
operator involves the most careful watchfalnese 
against exceeding the size prescribed in the plan 
for the stone; also against overheating the stone, 
which causes the development of small cracks in 
the interior of the stone called " icy flakes." An 
essential prerequisite for grinding precious 
stones is a means by which they can be held 
steadily and true in a desired position. For 
this the diamond- polisher uses a time-honoured 
tool called a " dop " (commonly pronounced 
"dob"). This holder of the rough diamond is 
a small hemispherical cup of iron attached by 
the convex side to a stout copper rod. The cup 
is filled with an easily fusible alloy of tin and 
lead, which is fused and allowed to cool; just 
before this composition solidifies the stone to 
he cut is set in the position desired in the cool- 
ing alloy, with about half its bulk projecting 
from the metal. Thus the stone is firmly fixed 
in an immovable position. The semi-precioos 
stones, wlien cut by the lapidary, are set in the 
end of a wooden holder, or " stick," with some 
kind of resinous cement. 

Diamond cutters formerly cut the diamondB 
in a small wooden box especially designed for 
this use; all of the operator's strength was 

Cutting Diamonds and Other Gems 207 

needed to rob two diamonds together, a pro- 
cess called " bruting," so that the attrition un- 
der this pressure would cut the stone into the 
shape desired. About the year 1888 the first 
machine was ioTented to shape diamonds, and 
the cutter, who formerly had to cut the stone 
twice, or several times, accomplishes the same 
result in one operation. All diamond-cutting 
ID America is now done by machine, while in 
Europe tbe smaller sizes are still cut by hand 
in the old tedious and laborious method. The 
tools for polishing remained unimproved from 
the inception of the modern diamond-cutting in- 
dustry until the year 1896, when the macliiue 
dop or holder was invented. This modern ma- 
chine dop, although still an imperfect device, 
holds the stone without the application of tlie 
mixture of lead and tin, but it can only be used 
for stones of a fair size. The majority of the 
cutters and polishers of diamonds in the United 
States now use these mechanical dops, as the 
market and industry in America demands stones 
of considerable size almost entirely; it is im- 
possible to use these dops for the stones of small 
Kize exclusively cut in Europe. The inventor 
; the machine dop also invented the machine 
' sawing diamonds. Through the use of thia 

2o8 A Book of Precious Stones 

device pieces of the stones which were formerly 
polished away and gronnd to worthless black 
dust are now saved. The economy effected by 
the sawing machine is illustrated by its use in 
cutting off the apexes of the rough diamond 
crystals; the smaller parts, called mel^e, are 
sent back to Europe to be cut 



/Counterfeiting precious stones of the 

^^ Iiigber classes has tbe same motive as 
coon terfei ting coin or paper money, and is 
easier, because gems Iiave no official cbaracter- 
istics, the physical and chemical characteristics 
are knomi to but few, and the counterfeiter 
does not hazard tbe penalties that tbe stringent 
laws of all nations enact against counterfeiters 
of the currency, the deterrent and punitive ef- 
fects of which, however, despite their severity, 
have never entirely prevented successful counter- 
feiting. The counterfeiter of precious stones, 
and the dealer who knowingly and deceptively 
fiells his product for an undue profit, swindle, and 
they are amenable to the criminal and civil laws, 
if evidence can be secured upon which to base 
snccessful prosecution and suits, a difficult mat- 
ter generally, especially to prove guilty know- 
ledge and intent. An enormous quantity of 
imitation gems is constantly being manufac- 

2IO A Book of Precious Stones 

tared and sold under various qaalifjing termn 
that preclude the possibility of the purchaser 
establishing a claim that deception was prac- 
tised, and in moat cases the price paid was far 
from that which a genuine stone of equal weight 
would bring in any market. These imitations 
frequently bring to their buyers one disappoint- 
ment, in that their brilliancy soon deteriorates 
or fades almost entirely. Sometimes " dia- 
monds," which are qualified with such prefixes 
as " Alaska," " Sumatra," " Borneo," or any 
other name dictated by the dealer's fancy and 
which, it is hoped, will sound to the ear of a pos- 
sible customer like a locality where diamond 
mines might be, are quartz or some other simple 
mineral; but in general tbey are of glass that 
has long borne the time-honoured name of 
" paste." Merchandise of this peculiar kind is 
so favourably exhibited in show windows and 
showcases by electric lights and other advan- 
tages, aa to deceive the inexperienced prospective 
buyer. By the merchants who offer for sale 
these transparent imitations they are called 
" white stones." 

Every gem for which there is a considerable 
demand has been, is, and, probably, always will 
be, imitated. Another name for 

^P^^linitations and Reconstruction an 

B^Btrass," derived from a man nutiied Straas of 
Strassburg, capital of the province of Alsace- 
Lorraine, Germany, who invented one of the 
several formulip and processes employed to 
create the brill taut, heavily lead-impregnated 
glass BO enormouBly used in the counterfeiting 
of gems. While tlie many prescriptions for the 
strass composition vary in constituents and pro- 
portions, a fair sample of these mixtures is as 

t) Pure powdered qnartz 38.2 
Red lead 53.3 
Potassium carbonate 7.8 
■ The ingredients are pulverised, mixed, and 
leatetl in a crucible with a temperature raised 
gradually until the compound fuses, with great 
care. It is maintained at that point for about 
thirty hours and then slowly decreased. The 
factors in securing a result that will fulfil all 
requirements are the thoroughness of the pre- 
vious mixing, the regularity of the temperature, 
the duration of the fusion, and the slowness of 
cooling. The clear paste is cut for imitation 
diamonds, while for the coloured gems the hue 
de-sired is imparted by the solution of metallic 
oxides and other substances; manganese oxide 

214 A Book of Precious Stones 

Both the genuine and artifltial ruby are unaffected, 
while all imitations made of paste, as imitation 
ruby, sapphire, emerald, etc., are quickly attacked. 

To M, Antony Jacques, a jeweller of Grenoble, 
Prance, is accredited the discovery of a new 
method of detecting counterfeit emeralds and 
garnets, a method that is simple and that can 
be applied by any person. Through two coloured 
glasses, placed across and upon one another, ene 
blue and the other yellow, the stone in question 
is examined, the stone being placed directly 
against an electric lamp. The genuine emerald 
will appear to be of a violet colour, no matter 
whether it is a "scientific," a "reconstructed" 
gem, or an ordinary green doublet. The most 
convincing imitation will appear unchanged and 
the deception thus easily demonstrated. A gen- 
uine garnet similarly placed upon an electric 
lamp and looked at through pale-green glass 
will appear decolourised, while a counterfeit 
will remain a garnet colour. The author's fix- 
perimenta have demonstrated the efficiency and 
reliability of these tests. 

Besides the complete imitation of gems there 
are partial sophistications in which considerable 
ingenuity and constructive ability are display 

nitations and Reconstruction 215 

Wvy creating " doublets " and " triplets." The 
doublet ia conetrncted with the table and crown 
of a genuine stone, usually off-coloured, ce- 
mented to a pavilion made of a paste having 
the approved colour, thus giving the valueless 
crown the appearance of a fine stone. The 
softness of its pavilion usually betrays the 
doublet. As a guard against this discovery the 
triplet was invented. This is a real gem, usually 
pale or off-coloured, with a thin layer of coloured 
glass at the girdle. The detection of this com- 
bination usually requires the magnifying glass 
and specific gravity tests; the glass usually be- 
trays the deception, and if soaked in alcohol, 
carbon bisulphide, or ether, the fraud usually 
separates. Pearls are imitated by coating the 
inner surfaces of glass beads with a preparation 
made from fish-scales. 
^^ BubstitutiOQ of other minerals for specific 
Pl^ecious stones has not the shadow of justifica- 
tion that sometimes softens the annoyance of 
receiving, or being offered, " Humething just as 
good " in drugs, groceries, or dry goods. The 
substitutes sometimes offered or proposed for 
diamonds include white sapphires, zircon, 
nd white topaz. Artifice is frequently 
I to heighten or change the colour of 

2i6 A Book of Precious Stones 

a real gem bj thermal or chemical treatment; 
thus heat may remove the colour or increase 
the brilliancy of topaz, sapphire, and other pre- 
ciooa stones. Heat will change the colour of 
a wine-jellow Drazilian topaz to a rose-pink; 
the same influence may whiten and render more 
brilliant an off-coloured or spotted diamond. 
A high temperature will often alter and im- 
prove the colour of the cairngorm, citrine quarts, 
and other minor gems. Chemical solutions can 
be successfully applied to turquoise to deepen 
its colour and invest it with permaneocy; agates 
are commonly dyed, and hy chemical aU 
colourless chalcedony is converted into an ex- 
cellent imitation of the moss agate. An off- 
coloured diamond may be apparently changed 
to a stone of good water by a wash of aniline 
blue, but the effect is hut temporary. Besides 
these, the interiors of settings may be backed, 
stained, or enamelled, usually entirely legitimate 

Far different from the imitation of gems U 
the making of them by artificial means, with 
the result of a real gem that is but slightly dii- 
tingnished from those produced in Katnre^ 
laboratory. Although there are distinctions d!» 
cemible to the expert with the aid of the 

Imitations and Reconstruction 417 

bagnifyiDg glass, the gem stones thiu prodnr^ 
—that are worthy of notice — contain tb« at«K 

soniponent parts in their proportions thai tti« 
^ natural stones do, and equal them in the [jrij*- 

cipal oharacteristics of hardness, speclSc gimir> 

ity, and refractiveness. 
L To quote Wirt Tassin : 

■ 'A eharp dietioctioD is to be drawn between the 
imitation of a gem stone and its formation by 
artificial metbod);. The imitatiua gem only siui- 
nlates the natural subatance; the artificial gem iH 
identical with it in all its ch«mical and physical 
properties. Until recently the laboratory gem was 
hardly more than a curiosity, although its syntheRis 
has undoubtedly been of value from the theoretical 
standi>oint. Examples of this class are to be found 
in the diamond as produced by Moissan in the eleo- 
trio furnace and the synthesis of spinel and chryso- 
beryl by Etielmen from mixtures of alumina and 
glucina, respectively, using boric acid at very high 
temperature as a solvent. Hydrofluoric acid and 
silicon fluoride have also been used to induce com- 
bination between silica and other oxides. In this 
manner topaz, a complex fluo-silicnle, has been made 
by the action of fluoride of silicon upon alumina. 
The minerals thus formed have usually been very 
malt and of no commercial value. Quite recently, 
lowever, rnbies have been produced by the fusion 
r ninmina with a trace of chromium oxide in the 
bectric furnace, and the art has progressed to such 
I extent that the product is now on the market 

2i8 A Book of Precious Stones 

for sale aa watch jewels. The electrio fnmact 
also produced another product which, while Btrfc 
Bpeakiog not a synthetic gem, yet is esBentiall.v 
an artificial one. Imperfect rubieB, chips, and small 
stones, are fused in the furnace together with the 
addition of a small amount of colonring oxide sncb 
as chromium. The fused product is then cut and 
polished, and the result is a ruby of good colour 
and of fairly large size. Emeralds and other 
coloured stones ha\'e been made in the same way, 
and BO promising has the industry become that ihe 
courts have been called upon to decide what con- 
stitutes a ruby. Their decision was in substance 
that the word ruby could be legally applied only 
to the red-coloured corundum, anhydrous oxide of 
aluminum, occurring ready formed in nature. 

RecoDStracted rubies however are in the main 
rightly placed and justly valued, for they are 
generally used in large quantities for mediuiD- 
priced jewelry. 

The French chemists Pr^my and Verneuil 
have succeeded in manufacturing true gems, 
rnbies chiefly, but also sapphires, by artiflcial 
processes. A title given to gems created by tbia 
or similar processes by man is " scientific " 
ruby, emerald, sapphire, or whatever the gem 
may be. Mr. Rudolph Oblatt of New York is 
an American producer of the "reconstructed" 
rnby, which has attained some commercial hoc- 

Imitations and Reconstruction 219 

cess, aud its effect upon the market for rubies, 
whether this be considered desirable or other- 
wise, has been to lower the price of natural 
rubies l>ecause the demand has been lessened 
for them; this applying probably only to stones 
of one carat or less, ^Tien " reconstructed 
rubies " were first offered to the jewelry trade 
in Paris, and subsequently in the United States, 
their makers encountered many disheartening 
rebuffs; to-day many merchants and manufac- 
turers who at first were horrified by, and who 
resented the suggestion of using the " recon- 
structed ruby," are complacently handling them 
in a continually increasing market for medium 
grade jewelry. 

tMr. Oblatt describes his process as follows: 
From the small genuine particles of ruby or 
.•nby sand" found with the real rubies in Burma 
I select pieces that are alike in colour aod quali- 
ties; one of these chips I place upon the top of a 
" U "-shaped platinum iridium tube. Upon this is 
focussed the heat from two jets of oxygen and 
hydrogen gas — for the latter can usually be sub- 
stituted gas from the street mains, as it contains 
a suRicient proportion of hydrogen gas to qualify 
it for this use — with a pressure of eight hundred 
pounds to the inch, producing a temperature of six 
thousand degrees P. As soon as the first chip is 
melted 1 introduce into the flame at the end of an 

220 A Book of Precious Stones 

Iridium bolder a second ctiip, wbicti when it tnelta 
flies off and adheres to tlie first melted chip and 
they are fused together. The continuation of this 
process of adding particles results in the produc- 
tion of a genuine ruby of the shape of a pear, 
resting on its Btem — the first chips fused — varying 
from five to ten carats in weight. The operation 
lasts from one to two hours, according to the size 
of the stone produced. The most difficult part of 
the process is the cooling; Nature's laboratory in 
which the ruby was produced had the resources of 
8 tremendous sustained heat and a cooling process 
of unknown duration. In general, Nature's cool- 
ing proceBB was too rapid, the evidence being in 
the minute cracks, called ribbons, which run through 
most rubies and the absence of which makes the 
perfect ruby one of the rarest and costliest of stones, 
especially when the cut gem weighs two carats or 
more. The cooling process is secret and one of the 
most important factors in the achievement of the 
reconstructed ruby. The enlarged ruby is then cut 
by the lapidary exactly as is the natnral ruby, for 
it is the same in its chemical and physical constitu- 
tion. This is attested by analysis made by very 
high scientific authorities, their reports being in my 
possession and open to the inspection of anyone. 

The scientific ruby is wholly the result of arti- 
ficial means but is genuine to the extent of being 
a pro[)erly proportioned combination of the chemical 
constituents of the natural ruby: in manufacturing 
the scientific ruby we begin with a solution of com- 
mon alum, to which a trace of chrome alum is 
added as the ultimate colouring constituent. Now 
add ammonia, and there results a gelatinotiB pre- 

ll^eipitate of 

mitations and Reconstruction 321 

B of the hydrates of aluminum and cbromium. 
This gelatiDouB precipitate is filtered off, evaporated 
down to dryness, and Bubseqnently calcined into an 
intimate mixture of alumina and the oxide of 
chromium. It is then ground into an impalpable 
p<iwder, and placed in the transforming apparatus. 
Through a tube passes a supply of coal-gas, through 
another tube a supply of oxygen. The two meet 
where they are ignited, and constitute a carefully 
regulated flame whose temperature is practically 
two thousand degrees. In a box at the top, is 
placed the powdered alumina, and the bottom of 
this box consists of a fine sieve. A small auto- 
matic tapper carefully jars the powder through 
the sieve and through a tube, which serves for the 
supply of oxygen. It thus hapi^ens that every trace 
of the powder must pass through the flames of two 
thousand degrees. 

In a critical review of this process and its 
results, a very high scientific authority stated 

These properties agree exactly with those of the 
natural ruby; but there is one feature by which 
these stones could be recognised as having been 
artificially produced; and that is by the form of the 
cavities existing in them, these being always spheri- 
cal. The cavities in a natural ruby are always of 
an irregular form, and this would always afford a 
moans of detecting the artificial stone. 

The stones are rubies and are not imitations, as 
ao many of their predecesBors have been. But they 

222 A Book of Precious Stones 

are not natural rnbies, even althoagh produced from 
clippings of the same, since the crystalline growth 
is a new one after the clippings have been fused. 

The sapphire as well as its sister of the 
corundum family, the ruby, has for years been 
the object of solicitude on the part of scientiBc 
experimentalists, who would produce real sap- 
phires by artificial means; Mr. A. H. Petereit, 
of New York City, the well-known dealer in 
gems and gem minerals, who purveys rarities 
in this line to collectors the world over, and 
whose inventive genius is represented by more 
than twenty-five patents, exhibited to the author 
a " reconstructed sapphire " which, tested merely 
by a visual examination, rivalled natural sap- 
phires, that of the same colour and purity 
would be Tery costly gems. Mr, Petereit's pro- 
cess is secret, and he modestly claims suc- 
cess only to the degree of producing atones 
of a size that will cut into small gems. Of 
the Petereit sapphires The Mineral Collector 

We are pleased to announce that the honour has 
fallen to an American tu at last manufactnre a 
real reconstriicted sapphire; successful in hard- 
ness, colour, brilliancy, and transparency. Eflorte 
have been made in France, Germany, and othet 

^ Imitations and Reconstruction 223 

^Bsnntries to Bactreesfuily make blue sapphires, and, 
Although they have been succeSBful up to the cool- 
ing point, they always lost their colour and became 
gray when cool. 

Mr. A. H. Petereit has had a German chemist 
working on a formula of his own for two years 
past, and has had his efforts at last crowned with 
soccess. At a meeting of experts in the gem busi- 
ness the reconstructed sapphires were placed 
among the real stones and they had to admit they 
were equal if not superior to the real gems. 

\Mien Mr. Petereit took up the mineral business 
his inventive mind was turned into a new channel, 
the manufacture of artificial gems. Already stories 
were being told of great successes accomplished in 
this line, but when it came to produce the stones 
they failed in one form or another; either the 
colour OP hardness was wanting. 

The new sapphires he has invented are perfect in 
every way. The cannot be scratched by the natural 
Rapphire, they have a beautiful deep blue colour, 
their brilliancy is only equalled by the diamond, 
their siieciflc gravity Is exactly the same as the 
natural stone. 

nis success with scientific rubies was due to the 

fact that those he handled were the best in the 

market. They were made from small natural stones 

ta' a secret process and not from aluminum and 

^^uer chemicals, as many now on the market were. 

^K^The Deutsche Ooldschmiede Zeitung, a Ger- 
man jewelry trade journal, has supplemented an 
article, from wliioh we quote, published upon 

a»4 A Book of Precious Stones 

the points of difference between reconstructed 
and genuine rubies, by presenting some addi- 
tional facts, and especially by reproducing two 
illQstrationa made from enlarged photographs of 
reconstructed and genuine rubies supplied by 
A. F. Kotler, of St Petersburg : 

On careful examination, in the case of the arti- 
ficial ruby, we notice at once the typical concentric 
lines as well as the little bubbles occurring in large 
numbers, which are always spherical, having, in 
other words, the character of an air bubble !□ a 
melted mass. The concentrio flue lines, showing 
variations in the colour, were compared at the time 
with the circular or spiral lines that result from 
the string of a paste-like mass, leaving nothing to 
be desired as far as plainness is concerned. A uat- 
nrally formed genuine ruby also shows spaces or 
enclosures, but these are mure or less angular, be- 
ing bounded by crystalline surfaces. The angu- 
larity of these voids is, moreover, determined b; 
the entire crystalline structure of the natural 

If, therefore, in the genuine ruby, the colour is 
unequally distributed, the colour stripes invariably 
assume a vertical direction, are never concentric M 
in the artificial stone. We may also frequently 
note that the colour does not run in one direction, 
but that colour stripes, often of varying inlensilv, 
cross one another at obtnae angles j in other 
words, correspond strictly with the crystalline 
structure of the grown stone. We may reiterate 

Imitations and Reconstruction 225 

( assertioa that in a genuine natural ruby con- 
eentric lines are never noted. This most important, 
and at the same time certain and simplest, dis- 
ticguishing characteristic, is the more to be 
regarded, inasmuch as the specific gravity, the 
colour, the hardness, and the dichroism — in other 
words, all the optical and chemical properties — of 
the artificial rnbj correspond, more or less, with 
those of the genuine stone and consequently the 
erientiflc assistance, in this case, fails ns entirely. 
An experienced gem expert will, moreover, recognise 
the genuine ruby by its peculiar, characteristic, 
Boft, silky brilliance, which is lacking in all artificial 


At the recent conTentioa of German jewellers 
Jn Heidelberg, where the question as to the na- 
ture of the 80-called artificial or "scientifio'* 
precioas stones was exhaustively discussed and 
a resolution expressing an attitude of opposition 
towards excessive advertisement of these pro- 
ductions was adopted, Court Jeweller Th. Hei- 
den, in the name of the " Association of 
-Tewellprs, Gold and Silversmiths of Bavaria," 
spoke in favour of hearing an opinion of a 
prominent authority in regard to the entire 
subject. According to the Journal der Gold- 
fchmiedeknnnt. this has now been rendered, 
the well-known mineralogist Prof. Dr. Conrad 
Oebbeke, of the tectinical high school in Munich, 

226 A Book of Precious Stones 

having expressed himself as follows, 
artificial precious stones; 

Betveen the Batural and tfae artificial pre 
stones, the material difference will always exist, 
that one is a natural, the otlier an artificial pro- 
duct. Up to the present time, I have not seen a 
single artificial precious stone that could not &e 
recognised as suck. The claim that the artificial 
stones are not to be distinguished from the nat- 
nral gems, that they are absolutely free from de- 
fects, etc., according to my experience, is not 
justifiable. Even if it is possible to produce pre- 
cious stones having the same crystallographic, phy- 
sical, and chemical properties as the natural 
gems, they are nevertheless not equal in value to 
the natural product. No more so than an ever so 
carefully executed and deceptively similar copy of 
a work of art, a painting, a piece of sculpture, 
etc., can be called the original. The artificial 
prodocta, made in the laboratory, are not formed 
under the same conditions as the natural article, 
and for this reason we may rest assured that, evea 
should the present scientific methods of distinguish- 
ing the genuine from the artificial precious stones 
fail, further scientific investigation will reveal a 
method that will make the distinction possible. In- 
teresting as may be the success thus far attained 
in the production of artificial precious stones, and 
while we may congratulate ourselves on the progress 
made in chemical technics in this direction, to the 
connoisseur, these articles Jtitl always be artificial 
products that can never deprive the natural stones 

Imitations and Reconstruction 227 

of their value. On the contrary really beantifnl 
natural precions stones will only he the gainer. 
The claim that synthetic stones will ever break the 
market for real precions stones, is, in my opinion, 
utterly nnfonndecL 



DECAU8E of their density and hardnese, 
'— ' gema are among the most permanent of 
Bubstances, and yet, to a greater degree, per- 
hapa, than any other kind of property, their 
value rests on sentiment. The associatioDs of 
gems in the human miad are so numerous and 
Taried, that no writer haa ever attempted to as- 
semble all of them; some are n'ell substantiated 
in history, others only in legend ; they are iden- 
tified with many religions, but moat of them are 
black with superstition, its origin generally ob- 
scure. This phase of the general subject of 
gems can l>e properly covered nnder the term 
and title of " folk-lore." The Bible's many 
references to gems are familiar alike to Hebrews 
and to all Christian readers of Holy Writ. Be- 
sides the scattered references and metaphorical 
use of the names of gems, the Bible contains 
three lists of precious stones. The first is an 
accoont of the jewels on the ephod, or short 

^nro-piece ct 



'o-piece coat of AaroD, tbe Jewish High Priest, 
to the front of which was attached the sacerdotal 
breastplate. The front and hack parts of this 
coat were nnited at each shoulder with an 
onyx mounted in gold and engraved with the 
names of the tril>ea of Israel, six on each stone, 
in memorj of the promise made by the Lord 
to them. (Exodus xxviii., 6, 12, 29.) The 
breastplate was made of the same material as 
the ephod, and folded bo as to form a kind of 
pouch in which the Vrim and Thummim (Light 
and Perfection — according to one version) were 
placed. (Exodus xxxix., 9.) The external part 
of tliis gorget, or " breastplate of judgment," 
was set with four rows of gems, three in each 
row, each stone set in a golden socket and hav- 
ing engraved upon it the name of one of the 
twelve tribes of Israel. (Exodus xxviii., 17-20.) 
The names of these stones, taken from Biblical 
tiquities by Adler and Casanowicz, and writ- 
ten for the Report of the United States National 
Museum, for 1896, page 943, are given as in the 
original and in the Septuagint, together with 
the meaning agreed upon by moat authorities. 
The rendering of the Revised Version, both in 
text and margins, is added in parentheses, the 
list being as follows; 1, Odem {sardion), car- 

23° A Book of Precious Stones 

nelian (sardius, rnby). 2. Pitdah (topazion), 
topaa or peridot. 3. Bareketh {smaragdos), 
Bmaragd or emerald (carbuncle emerald). 4. 
Nofek (anthrax), carbuncle, probably the Indiau 
ruby (ruby, carbuncle). 5. Sappir [sop- 
feiroa), sapphire or lapis lazuli (sapphire). 
6. Yahalom (jaspis), ODyx, a kind of chalcedon 
( diamond, sardoayx ) . 7. Leshem ( ligynon ) , 
jacinth, others sapphire (jacinth, amber). 8. 
Sheho (achates) agate. 9. Achlama (ome- 
thystos), amethyst. 10. Tarshtsh (chryso- 
lithos), chrysolite, others topaz (beryl, chalce- 
dony). 11. Shoham (beryllion), beryl (onyx, 
beryl). 12. Yashpeh (onychion), jasper. 

It should always be borne in mind that in 
many instances the equivalent of the niblical 
names of gems is uncertain in the nomenclature 
of modern mineralogy, therefore there are sev- 
eral lists of names given for the stones in the 
breastplate. There is an ancient silver breast- 
plate employed as an ornament for the MS. 
copy of the Torah, or Pentateuch, used in an 
ancient synagogue, preserved in the Division of 
Oriental Religions in the United States National 
Museum. According to this exhibit the twelve 
stones, with the names of the twelve tribes, are 
as follows: Garnet, Levi; diamond, Zeboloai 



^HknetbyBt, Gad ; jasper, Benjamin ; chrysolite, 
Sinieoo; sapphire, Issachar; agate, Naplithali; 
onyx, Joseph ; sard, Reuben ; emerald, Judati ; 
topaz, Dan ; beryl, Asher, 

Then there is a list given in the description 
of the ornaments of the PriDoe of Tjrns (Eze- 
kiel xrviii., 13) : 1, Odent; 2, Pitdah; 3, Yaha- 
lom; 4, Tarshish; 5, Sholiam; 6, Tashpeh; 7, 
Snppir; 8, Nofek; 9, Bareketh. 

In the description of the Heavenly City, 
(Revelations xxi., 19, 20), another list is given; 
in tliis list, which follows, the word used in the 
original, or Septaagint, is followed hy the ren- 
dering given by most authorities, that of the 
Ilevised Version in paren theses : 1, Jaspis, 
jasper; 2, Sapfeiros, sapphire or lapis lazuli; 
3, Chalkedon, clialcedony; 4, Hmaragdos, sma- 
ragd (emerald) ; 5, Sardonyx, sardonyx; 6, Sar- 
dio8, sartlios; 7, Chrysolithos, chrysolite; 8, 
Bcryllos, I>eryl; 9, Topazion, topaz; 10, Chryso- 
praaoa. chrysoprase; 11, ni/akititlws, jacinth 
(sapphire) ; 12, Ametht/stos, amethyst. 

Other references to gems in the Bible indi- 
cate the diamond as ahamir, amber as hashmal, 
and crystal (quartz) as gerali and guhish, ame- 
thyst «H ahlamah, and it is thought that the 
pearl is meant by the Hebrew word peninim, a 

A Book of Precious Stones 

word used several times in both the Old and 
New TeBtaments as a metaphor for something 
valuable and precious. 

Many and various powers have been ascribed 
by man to gems; powers curative, talismanic, 
and supernatural {tie word lithotnancp mean- 
ing divination by stones); some gems coald be 
made prophetic, others revealed the past; in the 
realm of medicine some were prophylactic and 
most of them were believed to be potent reme- 
dies. The latter superstition is hard to kill in 
the slow dissemination of science, and enrvives 
to-day, even in civilised and Christian countriee. 
Some gems were believed to possess the virtue 
of procuring the favour of the wise or great 
for their owners, some were supposed to invest 
their possessors with wisdom, strength, or cour- 
age, and some were shields against danger, dis- 
ease, and death. Qems were connected with 
astrology, and exerted an influence for good or 
for evil through the planetary influence of cer- 
tain days. White stones, the diamond excepted, 
were to be worn on Monday; Tuesday — the day 
of Mars — was elected for garnets, rubies, and 
other red stones; Thursday was for amethysts 
Friday — the day of Venus — owned the emerald 
Saturday — Saturn's day — claimed the diamond; 



while the topaz and yellow gems were ap- 
propriate to Sunday. 

Particular gems were inflaential daring cer- 
tain months, and, onder the proper astrological 
control, were supposed to have a mystical in- 
fluence over the twelve parts of the human 
anatomy. The potency of a gem worn with 
regard to this belief was increased if the natal 
day of the wearer corresponded with its partic- 
ular sign, and when worn as a birth or month 
stone was supposed to attract propitioas in- 
fluences and ward off evil. Gems to which were 
ascribed zodiacal control, and their periods of 
influence, follow: 

Garnet, Aquarius; January 21st to February 
2l8t. Amethyst, Pisces; February 2l8t to 
March 21st. Bloodstone, Aries; March 21at to 
April 20th. Sapphire, Taurus; April 20th to 
May 21st Agate, Gemini; May 21at to June 
Slat Emerald, Cancer; June 2lBt to July 22d. 
Onyx, Leo; July 22d to August 22d. Carnellan, 
Virgo; August 22d to gepteral)er 22d. Chrysolite, 
Libra ; September 22d to October 23d. Aquama- 
rine, Scorpio; October 23d to November 21st, 
Topaz, Saggitarius; November 2l8t to December 
2l8t. Ruby, Capricorn; December Slst to Jan- 
uary 2l8t 

234 A Book of Precious Stones 

An idea somewhat similar was that of the 
Jewish cabaligts, whicb accorded to twelve gem 
stones, when each was engraved with an ana- 
gram of the name of God> a mystical influence 
with, and a probetical relation to, the twelve 
angels, as follows: roby, Malchediel; topar, 
Asmodel ; carbuncle (garnet), Ambriel ; em- 
erald, Muriel ; sapphire, Herchel ; diamond, 
numatiel; jacinth, Zuriel; agate, Barbiel; ame- 
thyst, Adnaehiel; beryl, Humiel; onyx, Gabriel; 
jasper, Barchiel. 

The Twelve Apostles were symbolically repre- 
sented by precious stones; St, Peter, jasper; 
St. Andrew, sapphire; St. James, chalcedony; 
St. John, emerald; St Philip, sardonyx; St 
Matthew, amethyst ; St. Thomas, beryl ; St 
Thaddeus, chrjsoprase; St, James the Less, 
topaz; St Simeon, hyacinth; St Matthias, 
chrysolite; St Bartholomew, cameliau. 

While there are variations, the generally ac- 
cepted list of " birthstones'' is: 

January, garnet; February, amethyst; March, 
bloodstone; April, sapphire; May, emerald; 
June, agate ; July, ruby ; August, sardonyx ; 
September, chrysolite; October, opal; \ovemlHrt' 
topaz; December, turquoise. 

A suggestion of the superstitions whicl 

Folk-Lore 235 

iveeted gems with supernatural qualities fol- 

Agate. — Emblem of bealtli and wealth; inimi- 
&al to venomous things; alleviates thirst; gains 
victory for its possessor; stays storms; sharpens 
sight; increases strength; and — a quality that 
shnnld make it welcome to orators and lecturers 
— renders its wearers gracious and eloquent. 
The Mohammedans believed it would cure in- 
sanity when powdered and administered with 
water or apple juice. 

W Pierre de Boniface, writing in 1315, said: 
r " The agate of India or Crete renders its 
possessor eloquent and prudent, amiable and 

DioscoridcB, in his Materia Medica, prescribes 
agate as a preventive of contagion. 

Amber was believed to be good for stomach- 

!he, fits, scrofula, and jaundice. The amethysl 
imblematic of sincerity — lost its colour in con- 
tact with poisons, and was an antidote for them. 
It dispelled sleep, sliarpened the wits, and pro- 
moted chastity; while being a sure preventive 
of intoxication. Beryl was the favourite stone 
for divination; reinforced with potent incanta- 

mUf it foretold the future and reviewed the 
The bloodstone, if rubbed with the juice 


23* A Book of Precious Stones 

of the heliotrope, rendered its wearer invisible; 
it was also a specific for dyspepsia. Camelian 
cured tumors, cleared tbe voice, and preserved 
harmony; it also stopped bleeding at the nose. 
Cat's-eye cured croup and colic — it should thus 
he higtily favonred as a stone to be mounted in 
infant's rings. Chalcedony prevented and cured 
melancholy; worn in contact with the hairs of 
an ass it prevented danger during tempests, 
Chrysoberyl alleviated asthma. Chrysoprade 
was good for gout. Coral was a fever cure, and 
has had innumerable curative and preventive 
qualities ascribed to it. The qualities ascribed 
to the diamond included the power of curing 
insanity; powdered it was an excellent denti- 
frice and it cured epilepsy. In IJurma, and in 
tbe Middle Ages in Euroi»e, tbe diamond was 
supposed to be a poison akin to arsenic. The 
emerald stopped hemorrhages; it was cooling 
in fevers and used to strengthen and preserve 
the eyes. The garnet averted plague and was 
a defence against thunder, before lightning was 
known to he the agent of destruction. Jade 
everywhere and always has rested strong in 
superstition as a cure for diseases of the kid- 
neys. Jasper was good for lung troublei*, was 
a charm against scorpions and spiders, and 



'onld save its wearer from drowning. Jet 
cured snake bites. Lapis-Iazuli cured bilious- 
Dess. Oiiyx caused nightmare. Opal was used 
as an eyestone and heart-stimulant. The pearl 
cured stomach troubles and skin diseases. 
Quartz, even to-day, and in the United States, 
is invested with medicinal and supernatural 
qualties that hold the firm faith of many persons, 
especially in remote country places. A " vital 
ore," which is merely quartz sand, has a vogue 
in some sections of northern New York State — 
according to Wirt Tassin — as a panacea ; is 
particularly advocated for sore eyes, hemor- 
rhoids, carbuncles, indigestion, acre throat, gid- 
diness, and blood poisoning. Quartz balls are 
and have been used with great profit by mystics, 
astrologers, diviners, and other like fakirs, to 
foretell the future, disclose the past, and con- 
jure up distant scenes. The ruby is an amulet 
against plagne, poison, sadness, and sensuality; 
its corundum congener, the sapphire, if placed on 
the heart, imparts strength and energy; it also 
cures boils, carbuncles, headache, and cramps. 
Topaz averts sudden death. The wearer of a 
turquoise will require no accident insurance, 
the stone having that power. Zircon stimulates 
the appetite, aids digestion, and takes away sin. 

238 A Book of Precious Stones 

In India the mystics of that occult land be- 
lieve in the virtues and malign influences of 
precious stones; the modem Western spiritual- 
ists, who draw upon the Oriental treasure-house 
of occultism, are said to give credit to gems for 
mystical properties and influences. A school in 
Paris teaches a "science" of magnetic emana- 
tions, radiance, and crystals, and a Dr. de 
Lignieres of Nice, France, is the author of a 
book, in which he seriously considers the medi- 
cinal properties and influences of precious 



JENTIMENT occnpies a high place in the 
values of gems, and it has been, to a con- 
siderable extent, created by the historical or 
traditional association of di£fereQt gems with 
royal personages and people otherwise famous; 
the favour of the great has sometimes had an 
important effect upon the market value of pre- 
cious stones, and in some cases good or ill 
fortune has passed with gems from one possessor 
to another, until to the inanimate jewel has 
attached the credit or discredit of causing re- 
markable human experiences, and the stone has 
acquired the attribute of lucky or unlucky. The 
diamond fills the leading rOle in this historical 
and legendary drama of the gems, and a full 
account of all pertaining to it that is worthy of 
notice, that is extant in print, might suffice for 
a volume of considerable interest. 

Charlemagne fastened his mantle with a clasp 
; with diamonds; these historic stones illus- 


240 A Book of Precious Stones 

trate the crude efforts of the lapidaries of their 
time, the natural planes of the octahedron being 
only partly polished. 

Louis Duke of Anjou possessed a regal array 
of jewels; in an inventory of his gems exhibited 
1360-13(j8 was a description of eight diamonds 
which showed some skill on the part of their 

When the Duke of Bupgnndy, in 1407, gave 
a magnificent banquet to the King of France 
and his Court, the noble guests received as 
souvenirs of the entertainment eleven dia- 
monds, cut with as much skill as the art of 
that day was capable of, and set in gold. 

Pope Sixtus IV. was the recipient of the 
second diamond sent to be cut, in 1475, by 
Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, to Louis 
de Berquem of Bruges — regarded by his con- 
temporaries as the father of diamond-cutting. 
The first of the trio of famous stones is said 
to have been the historic "Beau Sancy"; the 
third diamond was presented to Louis XI. of 

" The Twelve Mazarins " were the twelve 
thickest diamonds of the French crown jewels, 
ordered by Cardinal Mazarin to be recut by 
Parisian cutters. 

Gems of Distinguished People 241 

^y Pope Jaliiis II., !□ 1500, o^Mied a diamond on 
which was engraved the figure nf a friar hy one 
Ambrosias Caradossa; this is one of the few 
noted examples of diamond sculp(;ure. 

The first French woman to lead fashion as 
a wearer of diamonds for personal ornaments 
IB said to have been Agnes Sorrel, famous in 
the time of Charles VII. Subsequently, under 
Francis I., extravagance in this particular 
in French society reached its climax, and 
the Luxns or Sumptuary Laws, in the reign of 
Charles IX. and Henry IV., were drafted to 
repress this form of extravagance. 

The late Earl Dudley owned one of the sev- 
erallarge and world-famous diamonds emanating 
from the diamond mines of South Africa; this 
stone was first famous as " The Star of South 
Africa "; it was then the size of a small walnut, 
when in the rough, and weighed 831/4 carats; 
cutting reduced it to 461/^ carats. 

The melodrama of gem history is contributed 
to by tlie record of Mohammed Ghori, the real 
founder of the Mohammedao dominion in In- 
dia, whose death discovered in his treasury 
precious stones weighing four hundred pounds, 
including a great number of diamonds of vast 
but inestimable value; this hoard of mineral 

242 A Book of Precious Stones 

wealth, this enterprising disciple of Maboinet, it 
IB said, acrjuired exclusively hy plunder. 

The famous "Eugenie"' diamond purchased 
by the Emperor of tlie French, Napoleon III., 
was found by a poor peasant at Wajra Karur 
in India; the finder tendered the stone to the 
village blacksmith as compensation for repair- 
ing a plough; tlie smith threw it away, bat upon 
reconsidering its possibilities recovered it and 
sold it for 6000 rupees to a merchant named 
Arathoon of Madras, who sold it to the French 
emperor for a great sum. 

Seflor S. I. Habid, a wealthy Spaniard of the 
rue Lafitte, Paris, proprietor of a collection of 
rare gems, is, according to information pub- 
lished in European and American newspapers 
during the spring of 1008, the possessor of the 
famous blue " Hope " diamond. For some time 
this celebrated stone was owned in America, 
the possessors being the firm of jewellers in New 
York City, Messrs. Joseph Frankel's Sons. The 
American owners admitted the sale of the stone 
in Paris, bnt declined to divulge the facts as to 
the price or the identity of the purchaser, stat- 
ing that the information, if made public, must 
come from the purchaser. The Sultan of Tur- 
key was for a time the reputed buyer. Mr. 

Gems of Distinguished People 243 

Edwin W. Streeter, who, partly by virtue of liis 
authorsbip of The Great Diamonds of the World, 
is entitled to the distinction of the expert on 
this phase of precious stones, in his book Pre- 
cious Stones and Qema, in a chapter entitled 
"Coloured Diamonda," traces a complete his- 
tory of the " Hope" blue diamond. This author 
is inclined to identify this stone as a part of 
a blue diamond, bought Jn 1642 by Tavernier, 
the famoas traveller and gem buyer, supxmsed 
to have been found in the old Indian mines, 
probably those of Gani-Color. It weighed in 
the rough II214 carats; and in 1668 it was sold 
to Louis XIV. The present name of this dia- 
mond is derived from that of Mr. Henry Thomas 
Hope, a London banker, who bought it in 1830 
for the equivalent in currency of the United 
States of about |85,000. 

Among the notable coloured diamonds is the 
" Dresden green diamond," a fine fiawless stone, 
of a bright apple-green colour. It is in the 
famous " Green Vaults " of Dresden, and has 
belonged to the Saxon crown since 1753. Au- 
gustus the Strong paid J60,000 for it Forty 
carats is its weight. 

Another famous forty-carat stone is the 
"Polar Star," a pure and brilliant diamond, the 

244 A Book of Precious Stones 

property of the Princess Tassoponff; it was 
purchased, prior to its present ownerehip, bj 
the Emperor Paul of Hnssia for a large sum. 

The Shall of Persia, whose reign has been 
lately troubled by revolting radicals in his do- 
main, may find consolation in the possession of 
a vast treasure of jewels rare. These include 
two niagniflcent rose-cut stones, the " Darya- 
i-nur," or " Sea of Light," which weighs 186 
carats, and the " Taj-e-mah," or " Crown of the 
Moon," weighing 146 carats. 

The women sovereigns of Austria, beginning 
with the Empress Maria Theresa, have had the 
proud privilege of displaying among tbe crown 
jewels of the royal house of Austria tlie 
famous " Florentine " diamond, also known as 
the " Austrian Yellow " and the " Tuscan " 
diamond. This illustrious citron-yellow stone 
weighs 1391/2 carats and is cut into a nine-rayed 
star of the rose form. The " Florentine " was 
formerly owned by the Grand Duke of Tuscany. 



A /ISUAL and palpable examiQatioD of gems 
L * and gem minerals is most desirable, if one 
Brould hare a thorougli understanding of gem- 
ology, for all that the best of hooks can teach must 
necessarily be, to a considerable extent, abstract. 
Fortunately for those who abide or sojourn 
near enough to take advantage of them, there 
are several public museums in America which 
possess collections of minerals, including gem 
minerals, and in New York City the great edu- 
cational institution, The American Museum of 
Natural History, bas, in addition, a tine collec- 
tioD of cnt gems, principally the gift of Mr. 
J. Pierpont Morgan, which is a delight to the 
eye of every visitor who sees it. While one can- 
not handle the minerals in such collections, and 
thus prove the statements made in this book 
and other publications, that gems are cold and 
that some feel greasy or have other qualities 
determined by the tactile sense, they are free 

246 A Book of Precious Stones 

for all to study optically, and so plain and 
practical is their Boientijic and commoD-BeDse 
arrangement, that the appreciative student muKt 
feel in his heart a great eense of thankfuIueKH, 
not only to tlie generous men of wealth, who \<y 
gifts and endowments have created this magnifi- 
cent institution, but also to the curators who 
have by their arrangements in exhibiting and 
labelling, with the auxiliaries of " rubrics " and 
guides and other publications, made the study 
of these representative specimens of minerals m 
easy that it might almost he said that " he who 
runs may read." The students of gems in New 
York owe to the generosity of Mr. Morgan the 
two large Tiffany exhibits of precious stones 
which were prepared by Tiffany & Co., under 
tiie direction of Dr. George Frederic Kunz, and 
exhibited, with distinction and credit, at the 
Universal Expositions of 1889 and 1900 at 
Paris. These two collections are now incor- 
porated in the general exhibit of gems in the 
Gem Uoom at the museum. In connection with 
these exhibits, and as a recognition of his public 
services in behalf of art and science, Mr. Mor- 
gan was made by the French Republic OfficuT 
de Legion d'Honneur. Mr. Morgan also pre- 
sented to the museum the superb mineralo^cal 

Gem Minerals in Museums 247 


■SolIectioD of Mr. Clarence 8. Bement, of Phila- 
delphia, which has for years stood foremost 
among American cabinets, and vies (especially 
iD the matter of American minerals) with the 
great collections of the world. In this connec- 
tion it is intt'resting and appropriate to record 
the generous gift of Mrs. Matilda W. Bruce of 
New York City, who created the Bruce Fund; 
this is an endowment, of tlie sum of ten thou- 
sand dollars, of the Department of Mineralogy 
of the American Museum of Natural History, 
which yields an annual income of ff>60, which is 
applied to the purchase of specimens. The de- 
velopment of minerals is the slowest growth in 
the scheme of creation, but it is a satisfaction 
to know that in the American Museum of Nat- 
ural History, as in other " live " kindred insti- 
tutions, the collection of minerals develops and 
improves rapidly, as is well known to those wlio 
have solicitously kept pace with it year by year. 
For the student who would go deeper than to 
the extent of a mere fancy, there exist associa- 
tions most helpful and interesting, of which the 
student can be the beneficiary and a member 
at very slight cost ; such as the New York 
lEioera logical Club and the Philadelphia Min- 
ical Club, which hold educative meet- 

348 A Book of Precious Stones 

JDgB where the members read papers and in 
many wajs contribute informatioD, and which 
make field study trips to localities kDown to be 
productive of specimens of interest. All who 
visit the collections at the American Moseiun of 
Natural History should obtain Guide Leaflet 
No. 4 for the Collection of Minerals (which is a 
supplement to the American Museum Journal), 
written by Louis P. Gratacap, A,M., Curator, 
Department of Mineralogy, of the museum. For 
more extensive information applicable to this 
collection and institution, and to similar ones, 
a most profitable investment would be the book 
by the same author, A Vade Mecum Guide to 
Mineral CoUectionSf with a Chapter on the De- 
velopment of Mineralogy, with enlightening half- 
tone illustrations and over two hundred figures 
of crystals. There are also periodical publica- 
tions devoted entirely or in part to mineralogy. 
The growth of the mineral collection of the 
American Museum of Natural History has been 
gradual, beginning with the Bailey collection, 
which served as an introductory and fairly repre- 
sentative series of specimens. A valuable acceit- 
sion was the most remarkable group of specimens 
of malachite and azurite donated by the Copper 
Queen Consolidated Mining Company of Ari- 

Gem Minerals in Museums 249 

aona, wbicli, with eubseqiient additions from the 
same donor, is the most striking feature of the 
whole collection ; it is assembled and installed 
in a single case at the north end of the small 
hall. After this invalnable acquisition of the 
green and blue carbonates of copper from Ari- 
zona, the Spang collection was purchased in the 
year 1891, which doubled the number of spe- 
cimens posseseed bj the museum, and added 
manj new varieties and kinds of minerals. In 
the nine years that followed many valuable ad- 
ditions came from generous benefactors, and in 
1900 Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan purchased and 
presented to the museum the remarkable collec- 
tion assembled by Mr. Clarence 8. Bement of 
Philadelphia, characterised by the collector's su- 
perior scientific judgment and exquisite taste 
— which evolved from the field of specimens 
available throughout the world a great variety 
of forms representing the commoner minerals — 
and the exceptional perfection of the specimens. 
While the rock-bottom upon which modem 
mineralogy is founded is chemical law, it might 
be said that crystallography is its foundation, 
so that minerals of the same chemical type are 
grouped together, in the modern scheme of ex- 
hibition ; and, under that type, minerals of 

250 A Book of Precious Stones 

.similar physical or crystal lograpliic features , 
urc arranged in ^smaller subdiTlsions. To ^ 
Professor Gratacap: 

The forms of miaerala are their moat i 
(.-haractertfitifl. The eix-sided prisms of quartz and 
beryl crystals, the rhomboidal or trapezoidal 1 
of garoet, the triangular faces of magnelitt 
the square faces of fluorite are unmistakable. 1 

The branch of mineral science known 
tallograpLy is now well developed and ■ 
lished, and it has been demonstrated 
crystal form lias a close dependence upon 
Jcal composition. The arrangement of all 
mens at the American Museum of Nal 
History, in both desk and wall oases, ia exemp- 
larily systematic, and in accordance with the 
classiScation of tbe sixth edition of Danft'fl 
System of Mineralogy. An intelligent ioapety 
tion of the collection at this museum, for the 
novice in mineralogy, should begin with desk 
case No. 28, followed by case No. 27; these two 
cases contain introductory series presenting the 
chemical and physical features of minerals, to- 
gether with explanatory tables and photographs. 
The models showing the formation of crystals are 
ingenious in design and exrellent In construction, 
and illustrate the crystallograpliic system to the 

Gem Minerals in Museums 251 

■DTice clearly and as no other device possibly 
lonid do. Visitors to the museum who are in 
ibe jewelry trade are likely to view with par- 
Itcular interest the choice specimens of gold ex- 
hibited ID desk case No. 1, where it appears in 
ibeets like rolled metal; in plates, with crystal- 
^es; in braided filaments made up of 
minute octahedrons with hollow faces; in twisted 
plates frequently attached to quartz, around 
irbicb it curls like some irregular yellow flower; 
sides which there are cavernous, skeleton, and 
kitted crystals; peculiar distortions; reticulated 
nd tree-shaped groups with spongy masses ; 
md roanded water-worn nu.t'gets. Case No. 27 
(Ibo contains the fine collection of the New York 
pineralogical Club of specimens of minerals 
Kcurring on Manhattan Island; these ioclude 
garnets, zircon, and tourmalines and a few other 
|em minerals, although not all of gem quality. 

In the south end of the small hall is the 
collection of gems which, while it is not as 
broadly representative of the semi-precious 
jgtones as it could be, provides an ocular demon- 
'ation of the appearance of typical gem 
fafnerals of good colour and qualities, advan- 
•onsly cut. A brief visit to this collection, 
I a supplement to the study of gems through 

2 $2 A Book of Precious Stones 

books, will provide a practical lesson that will 
clearly illustrate the written descriptions of pre- 
cious stones, and leave a mental picture that is 
likely to be lasting. 



3E trade of diamond-ctitting presents many 
points of interest, beginning with the hiph 
intrinsic valne of the raw material entrusted 
to these workmen, upon whom their employers 
must rely for absolute honesty, rare skill, and 
the beat of judgment. The diamond cutters in 
North America are not a great power numeri- 
cally in the world of labour, but their labour 
union is in some respects one of the strongest 
of such organisations. 

Peter Ooos, the first diamond polisher to settle 
in the city of Amsterdam, Holland, arrived there 
in 1588. In time the mere hruting or polishing 
of diamonds in Holland was sncceeded by scien- 
tific cutting on geometrical lines and the ar- 
tisans employed in the work and their processes 
were evoWed into a distinct and recognised in- 
dnstry. In the year 1815 the leading diamond 
cotters of Holland convened, declared them- 
Belres " maeters," decided to employ, to begin 

2 54 A Book of Precious Stones 

witli, a score <if apprentioes, and organised 
iliaiuoiKi-futtiug into a full-fledged ti-ade. TUe 
foundations being thus laid, tbe trade flourished 
until the last half of the nineteentli centniy, 
when it apparently was obliterated as one of 
the effects of war, chiefly the Civil War in the 
United State and tlie Franco-Prussian Wot in 
Europe. When the first diamond mines were 
discovered in 1870 in South Africa, the demand 
for diamonds rose, and diamond cutters were 
once more enlisted in the service of the Dntcb, 
English, and French importers, and almost any 
one who wished was given an opportunity to 
learn the trade, which had been so long asleep. 
The trade in diamonds then rapidly developed 
annually; improved steam navigation and oQiof 
scientific progress provided better facilitiea foi 
exporting and importing gems, and there wen 
established many new factories for cutting 
polisbiug diamonds in the city of AmsterdaiQi 
until the entire industry centred in IToIlaod'^ 
capital. Amsterdam only secured tbe lead 
the Diamond City after a keen commercial and' 
industrial rivalry with Antwerp, a contest thst 
was waged, with varying fortunes, for max^ 
years. Tbe workmanship of tbe diamond cntl 
and polishers of the Amsterdam factories is. 



THE KEW y'??X 




Diamond Cutters' Trade Union 255 

L _.,..._ 

^^pe world. 

^^P The diamond cutters' udIod of Amsterdam is 
& trade uaion of uDiiiue soiidaritj, which has 
l)eeD tried by the fire of many industrial dis- 
putes and trials, particularly during dull times 
when but a portion of the members could find 
employment. There are at the present time 
eighty-five hundred workmen, all members of 
the union, in Amsterdam, distributed among 
some eighty factories. The Amsterdam union is 
governed by salaried officers, who are elected by 
the whole body. These officers are; president, 
secretary, treasurer, and second treasurer; 
also an inspector of wages, whose function and 
duty it is to investigate and report upon any 
violation of a wage agreement he may discover. 
The union publishes a weekly journal, edited 
!iy the union's president; this journal is re- 
garded by the meml)ers of the union as the fore- 
most authority upon all matters connected with 
the diamond industry. The Amsterdam union 
was organised in November, 1894, after a simul- 
taneous strike of all the operatives. The strike 
and union followed a commercial depression of 
the diamond trade and a consequent reduction 
of wages. Prior to the discovery of diamonds 

2s6 A Book of Precious Stones - 

in Soutb Africa in 1870, tlie diamond cutters 
of Anisterilam received an average of from hix- 
teen to eighteen dollars per week; directly after 
the discovery, when diamonds were found in 
large quantities, a period known in the trade 
aa " the Cape time,"' tlie demaud for the skilled 
labour of the cutters was bo great that wages 
were increasetl so that the diamond cnttera were 
able to earn from two hundred to six hundred 
dollars per week ; this is a conservative state- 
ment, for a diamond cutter now employed in 
New York City states that his father, employed 
in Amsterdam during that time, earned as high 
as eiglit hundred dollars in one week. 

Tlie eiglity-five hundred diamond workers of 
Amsterdam are divided into ten branches, known 
as foHows: No. 1, brilliant polishers; 2, bril- 
liant polishers' assistants or helpers; 3, brillEaDt 
cutters; 4, brilliant setters; 5, rose polishers; 
6, rose cutters; 7, rose setters; 8, six- and eight- 
face polishers; 9, cleavers, or splitters; and 
10, sawyers. Each of these branches has Us ova 
delegation to represent its members in the ex- 
ecutive board of the union. 

In North America the diamond cutters are 
well organised. 

When the United States levied an import 

Diamond Cutters' Trade Union 257 

daty on diamonds, there arose a demand for 
expert operatives to cut and polish diamonds 
here, and tben came tlie first immigrant dia- 
mond workers, mostly from Amsterdam. As 
soon as tbere was a sufficient number of dia- 
mond workers here to form a numerically 
respectable organisation, whicli was in 1895, the 
men established their first union. The Dingley 
Tariff, which provided a duty of ten per cent, 
on oncat diamonds and twenty-five per cent, on 
cut stones, had been enacted into a law, and it 
profited American importers to have their dia- 
monds cut here, and cut in accordance with tlie 
exacting requirements of the American trade; 
BO diamond-catting was raised into a small but 
a recognised industry. The first union organ- 
ised, although successful from ita inception, 
disbanded, because tlie membership represented 
too many different nationalities and customs, 
and the individual members had not then 
learned the wisdom of subordinating petty pre- 
judices and motives to the common interest. 

The present union is entitled The Diamond 
Workers Protective Union of America, and was 
organised September 16, 1902. There are about 
three hundred and seventy-five members, a ma- 
jority being natives of Amsterdam, although, 


Hamond Cutters' Trade Union 259 

^^noDrs, France; Genera and Gex, Switzerlund ; 
TxindoD, England; and New York. Tlirounh 
tbis central organisation, all diamoDd workers 
of the world are virtually aader one control. 
When a member of one local union goes to an- 
other place, he receives a certificate which en- 
titles him to membership in the organisation 
existing in the place of his destination, aud be 
18 entitled to immediately participate in all 
benefits that the local union may afford. Re- 
ports issued monthly by the International Boanl 
enable tbe affiliated local unions to keep track 
constantly of tbe conditions of tbe various mar- 
kets of the world. Tbe local unions contribute 
to general strikes in other countries and are 
assessed, if necessary, so that strikes can be 
continued after the fund of tlie local treasury 
has run out. All news of worthy importance 
to the workers in tbe diamond industry is 
promptly cabled. If a union proposes to change 
tbe wages or other conditions, its claim is pre- 
sented to the individual employers. If employers 
and employees cannot agree, the differences are 
usually first referred to the Diamond Cntters' 
Manufacturers' Association, which in most cases, 
appoints a committee to arbitrate the questions 
at issue, with a corresponding committee of tlie 

a6o A Book of Precious Stones 

nnioD. From January, 1906, until May, 1908* 
trade agreements existed between the employers' 
and employees' associations in the Uoited 8tatea< 
whereby hours of labour, scales of wages, ap- 
prentice regulations, and practically all matters 
which could result in conflicts, were regulated. 
For matters which were not covered in these 
agreements a clause provided that recourse 
must be had to arbitration. 

The diamond-cutting industry in the United 
States was in a Nourishing condition from its 
beginning until the latter part of 1907, wben, 
because of the financial depression popularly 
termed " the rich man's panic," all the diamond- 
cutting factories in America were closed, throw- 
ing out of employment the entire number of 
diamond workers. Before the advent of the en- 
suing year a few factories reopened with work 
progressing on a small scale, and, gradually, 
as confidence in the commercial world was re- 
stored, the factories resumed operations. Dur- 
ing the period of idleness about one hundred of 
the workmen in the trade returned, with their 
families to Amsterdam and Antwerp, where tlM(y 
received immediate employment. 

At the beginning of the panic of 1907 the 
American diamond cutters' union bad a sorpim. 

^ THE HEW yoRj , 


Diamond Cutters' Trade Union 261 

in its treasury of 127,000; this snm was soon 
used up for the support of members, and the 
union in Amsterdam remitted a maintenance 
fund of 115,000. 



■"PHE sequence to the cutting of a gem fai 
' generally mounting and setting it, anleaa 
it is merely perforated and strung »» a bead 
or hung as a pendant. Mounting and setttng 
is the trade of the goldeniith or jeneller, and 
whether his goods are artistic or inartistic de- 
pends to a great degree upon the discriminatioo 
of buyers. There is almost as mncli rarlatiOD 
in the metallic environment of gems as there is 
in architecture, and the designing and executioD 
of the jeweller range from meritorious to atTO> 
cious. To a great extent the metal moantioflB 
for gems are stamped out in dies or are other- 
wise machine-made, but no matter how cleoerrhlg 
of praise the original design, the finished articie» 
to the eye artistic, is " commercial." Withlo a 
few recent years the struggle to elevate art, in 
other directions than in the field of things con- 
sidered as exclusively ita province, has invaded 
the domain of jewelry, and some patient work- 

Arts and Crafts Movement 



^^^ have produced commendable creations by 
their liaDdicraft. This new jewelry is partly 
ideotilied witli what might be termed the gen- 
eral arts and crafts movement, but, as is always 
the case with efforts of this kind that become 
known onder a popular name, many unworthy 
deeds are done under its banner by the care- 
less, the deceptive, or the undisciplined, whose 
products, heralded by them as " artistic," are 
worse than " commercial." Pretenders can 
easily impose upon the uneducated. But honest 
efforts are being made by pioneers with high 
ideals to properly instill them into the minds 
of student craftsmen, and to train their hands 
to a degree of skill that will measure up to the 
higher standard, which hopeful reformers are 
trying to set for the jewelry of the future. 
The efforts of these idealists of the arts and 
crafts movement deserve the respect, the en- 
couraLgement, and the co-operation of gem deal- 
ers and of the jewelry trade throughout. As it 
has been well said by Professor Oliver Cum- 

(piings Farrington in his Gems and Gem 
Minerals : 
There is room, however, for the development of 
a mvvh higher taste in these matterH than exists 
at preseat. The average buyer is content to know 

264 A Book of Precious Stones 

that the article which he purchases contains a eap- 
phire, emerald, or diamond, representing ho mach 
intriDsio value, without considering whether the 
beet use of it, from an artistic point of view, has 
been made; or whether for the same outlay 
mnch more pleasing effects might not have been 
obtained from other stones. In the grouping of 
gems, with regard to effects of colour, Instre, tex- 
ture, etc. certain combinations often seen are far 
from ideal, while others rarely seen would be ad- 
mirable. Thus a combination of the diamond and 
turquoise is not a proper one. since the opacity of 
the latter stone deadens the luetre of tbe former. 
The cat's-eye and diamond make a better combina- 
tion, and so do the more familiar diamond and 
pearl. Colourless stones, such as the diamond or 
topaz, associate well with deep-coloured ones, Bnch 
as amethyst and tourmaline, each serving to give 
light and tone to the other. Diamond and opal as 
a rule detract from each other when in combina- 
tion, since each depends upon " fire " for its 

While there are variations innnmerable of 
design and device in mounting gems, there are 
practically but two basic methods, the mount 
d jour (two French words, meaning to the 
light) and the encased mount. The ordinary 
manner of setting gems in rings, the stone held 
by a circlet of claws, permitting a v'ww of it, 
or through it, from all points, illastrates tbe 



1 WW y 






Dfaianiliy S. Kiiulmi 

' Arts and Crafts Movement 265 


BB jour, or open, method. This is best adapted 
to transparent stones, exposing them freely to 
the light. The projecting claws of the open set- 
ting are slightly cleft near their extremities 
and these, ander a pressure that inclines them 
slightly inward, pinch or grasp the stone at the 
girdle. Opaque stones, such as turquoise, blood- 
stone, or onyx, are usually set in the encased 
mount, in which the gem is set in a metal bed, 
with only the top expose<l. 

While to some degree anything fashioned by 
machinery is open to the detracting term " com- 
mercial," there is often much artistic merit in 
the designs issuing from the factories of man- 
ufacturing jewellers, but nothing can rival the 
charm of objects wrought solely and entirely by 

The work of the more expert of the students 
taking the jewelry course in Pratt Institute of 
Brooklyn, and at other educational institutions 
where this department of art and manual train- 
ing is a serious feature, is a revelation of 
present attainments, and a hopeful sign that the 
jewelry of the future in America will conform 
more to true artistic ideals and serve less as a 
medinm for mere ostentatious display. An ex- 
hibition of the work of students In the jewelry 

366 A Book of Precious Stones 

course was an attractive phase of the twenty- 
fifth annual exhibit of student products at Pratt 
Institute in June, 1908. The exhibits of the 
class in jewelry and metal-chasing were dis- 
played in two large glass cases, and consisted 
of rings, pendants, bracelets, stick-pins, brooches, 
scarf-pins, buckles, and hammered copi>er work. 

A silver medal presented by Mr. Albert M. 
Kohn of New York City, as a prize for the 
most proficient student of the jewelry class, was 
awarded by a committee of trustees, who acted 
as a jury of award, to Mr. Carl H. Johonnot. 
The work exhibited by the winner of the medal 
included a number of fine pendants, rings, silver 
spoon, and stick pins. 

For a description of the class in jewelry de- 
signing at t}ie Pratt Institute, and also for ex- 
cellent photographs of finished work executed 
and designed by students of the class of 1908, 
credit is given to Mr. Walter Scott Peny, 
Director of the Department of Fine and Applied 
Arts, of the Institute. 

The first class in jewelry, hammered metal, 
and enamelling was organised in the Depart- 
ment of Fine and Applied Arts, Pratt Institute, 
in September, 1900, with Mr. Joseph Araoyi as 
instructor in day and evening claKHes. Mr. 


^m^^^r^ .^^^1 







Arts and Crafts Movement 267 

•auy\ at the time was one of the expert work- 
ers with Messrs. Tiffaoy & Company, New 
York City. He continued as instractor of the 
class, until June, 1904, when he resigned his 
position to accept one in Providence, Rhode 

In September of the same year Mr. Carl T. 
Hamann was appointed instructor in jewelry, 
and for some time has had full charge of all 
work of this class. He has proved himself an 
exceptionally fine instructor, and the quality of 
work has gained very rapidly under hia inatruc- 
tioD. Mr. Hamann is an expert jeweller by 
profession, being formerly connected with 
Durand & Company, Newark, N. J., and later 
with Tiffany & Company, New York. In 1889 
he went to Europe and studied modelling in 
Munich for one and a half years, going from 
there to Paris, where he studied in the Acad^mie 
Julian and the Ecole dea Beaux Arts for two 
years. After hia return to this country he be- 
came the head modeller for the Whiting Man- 
ufacturing Company, New York. Mr. Hamann 
was the sculptor of the statue of Justice which 
was one of the eight statues on the Trium- 
phal Bridge at the Pan-American Exposition at 
BoCFalo, At St Louia he had a statue symbol- 

Arts and Crafts Movement 269 

studios of their own and fill orders that come to 
them from many aod varied sourcea. 

The coorses are planned to meet the needs of 
those who wish to enter the trades involving 
jewelry, enamelling, repouss^, chaeing m pre- 
cious and other metals, and the making of suit- 
able tools required in such work, Thej give 
adequate training in design and modelling, in 
the application of designs to practical problems, 
the setting of stones, euamelling and finishing, 
and in the methods and practice of technical 
work in metal. Instruction is also given in 
medal work and in the preparation of models 
for reduction. 

The increasing demand for applied art work 
in useful objects, and the difficulty experienced 
by manufacturers in securing the services of 
American artisans whose knowledge and skill 
are sufficient to guarantee good workmanship, 
present a trade condition which offers unusual 
opportunities for remunerative employment and 
advancement to those who have had the advan- 
tage of such training as these courses give. 

In this day of specialisation, the apprentice- 
ship system is no longer adequate. The appren- 
tice acquires little more than the skill necessary 
to meet the technical requirements of his trade; 

270 A Book of Precious Stones 

but, as the suct&sh of the ornameDtal metal 
worker depends quite as mucli upon bis artistic 
conceptions and bis designs as upon bis skill IQ 
execQtion, tbe work of tbe sliop nm«t t)e sup- 
plemented by art instruction. By alternating 
the character of the problems given to the stu- 
dents, the applied work shows tbe inspiration 
that comes from a careful study of modelling, 
ornament, and tbe principles of design ; and the 
work in modelling and design shows the adjost- 
ment and illumination that come from coDBtant 
contact with practical problems. 

The courses appeal to two classes of workers; 
to tbe apprentice who, by this instruction, can 
greatly shorten the period of his apprentice- 
ship, and who can supplement the technical skill 
which he would gain in tbe shop by tbe work 
in drawing, modelling, and design ; al^io to the 
art student who is turning bis attention to work 
in tbe applied arts. Tbe opening offered to such 
a man in this field exceeds that in almost any 
line of illustrative art work; and the demand 
for trained workers in the skilled trades in art 
applied to metals and tbe limited supply of such 
men make advancement practically assur ed 4lt 
an earnest worker. 

The rooms of the department devot«d 

and Crafts Movement 271 

study and practice of jewelry and other forme 
of metal work are equipped aa workshops with 
everything oeedful for practical and applied 

The day course includes instruction in draw- 
ing, design, historic ornament, and in applied 
work in chasing and repouss^, jewelry, enamel- 
ling, and medat work. 

All work is designed and modelled in wax, 
east in plaster, and then wrought in copper, 
fiilrer, or gold. In the work in jewelry, silver 
is used from the first, students making rings 
with various stone settings, scarf pins, pendants, 
chains, bracelets, buttons, brooches, etc., the 
work being plain, decorated, chased, or set with 

In hammered metal work, students make their 
own tools and produce shallow and deep objects 
in copper and silver, including trays, howls, 
tipoons, and the like, with decorative designs and 
reponss^ chasing. Parts of objects, such as 
handles and supports, are also cast, chased, and 
applied as needed in the design. 

Instruction is given in enamelling on copper, 
Nilver, and gold. 

All work is done in a thoroughly professional 
manner. Applicants are accepted only for regu- 

27= A Book of Precious Stones 

lar and systematic work, and they mast ^m 
evidence of originality, skill, and general fitattB 
for the course. 

Certificates will be granted for the satis^- 
tory completion of a day course of three years. 

The classes meet for work daily, excepl 
Saturday, from 9.00 a.m. to 4,25 p.m. Instrne- 
tion is given on eight of tlie ten half-day am- 
sions. The tuition fees are, |20,00 a term, with 
an additional laboratory fee of f3,00 a term for 
miscellaneous material used by students. Tbere 
are three terms in each school year. The fall 
term opens the last week in September. 

The course provides for wax-modelling, ham- 
mered metal work, the application of relief 
ornament, and the finishing of casting in a 
thoroughly professional manner; the work being 
planned for advanced students as well aa for 
beginners. Instruction is given in the makiDg 
of tools, the modelling of objects in sheet metal, 
reponss6, or relief ornament in flat and hollow 
ware, and the chasing of ornament in bntSB, 
bronze, silver, and gold. Instruction is also 
given in jewelry. The class meets on Monday, 
Wednesday, and Friday, from 7.30 to 9.30 P.M., 
from the last week of September to the last of 
March. The tuition fee for the evening courk> 



*^ .^-/^-- 


^^4^ ■ 

_.;r 1 

M- ' 

■ ^ 

^•- -^ -^ 

"■ ^ 




Arts and Crafts Movement 273 

. la $15.00 s 

1 season of hix inontlis, v 
all practice material used by 

hicli includes 
students in 

Students and alumni of Pratt Institute have 
organised The Pratt Art Club, which its mem- 
bers otherwise quaintly designate as " Ye Brook- 
lyn Clob of Ye Handicrafters " ; in its exhibi- 
tions, held at the club's rooms near Pratt 
Institute, are shown some attractive specimens 
of the work of these crafters. 

There is a course in jewelry designing at 
Cooper Union in New York City under the 
direction of Mr. Edward Ehrle. The Cooper 
Union class meets tri-w.eekl.y,_tri*'tlie evening, 
for a two hours' session, "fhe work begins 
with easy geometrical designs; original work 
by the pupils is constantly encouraged. The 
school year begins the second Monday after 
September 15th and ends about May 15th. The 
full course requires about three years. At the 
conclusion of the term in the year 1908, a cash 
prize offered by The Jewellers' Circular-Weekly 
was awarded to Mr. Frederick E. Bauer for his 
eicellent work. 

A resource of value to the artistic designer 
of jewelry in and near New York City is the 
CJooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decora- 

274 A Book of Precious Stones 

tioD, a subsidiary inBtittition of this famous old 
hall of edacation that is now, although pri> 
gressing in its acquisition of valaable exhibits, of 
incalculable value to the arts and industrien (tf 
America; the usefulness of this institution is 
however restricted, l>ecaiise it is not well kDOirn. 
It is probably a safe assumption to soy that not 
one person in many thousands of the inhabitant! 
of the metropolis is cognisant of the exisl 
of such a treasure-house, which is available 'to 
all earnest seekers after ideas, information, aad 
material for the betterment of art, and undgt 
conditions impossible to escel in providing tll6 
greatest opportunity and freedom to all xAlK 
will avail themselves of it. The contenta of ibit 
museum would astonish thousands wiio 
familiar with the broadly advertised contcifls 
of the Metropolitan Museum of Art,, and 
feeling of regret that comes over the approciattiW 
visitor to the Cooper Union Museum sugj 
the reflection that a little adept yet dignifiaft 
promotion of publicity would be beneficial to 
the eEBciency of this inatitutioD. A strong feat- 
ure of this working museum is a collection of 
encyclopedic scrap-books, open, like all else 
here, to all applicants for permisuioa to 
them; the scrap-book covering jewelry alioira 












f " 












Arts and Crafts Movement 275 

lany excellent designs, fertile in ideas for 
l)racelet8, chatelains, clasps, lockets, combs, 
croniis, tiaras, bead ornameDts, dress and 
engraved ornaments, knots and bowknots, ear- 
rings, girdles, belts, hoops, rings, necklaces, pen- 
dants, sceptres, seals, and watcbes. 

While the bibliography presented in this vol- 
urae is extensive and of wide scope, unfortu- 
nately, but a few of the books listed are to be 
found in the average public or institutional 
library. A valuable resonroe for the students 
at Pratt Institute or Cooper Union, or any one 
who would delve as deeply as possible into the 
subject of jewelry, is the Society Library in Uni- 
versity Place, near Thirteenth Street', Sew York 
ity. This, Manhattan Island's oldest library, 
08 founded by King George II., and his repre- 
sentative who was at the time the royal governor 
of the Colony of New York. The family of ex- 
President Roosevelt have been benefactors of 
the library for six generations, and he is at this 
time an active niemlH-r of the board of trustees. 
Although not a public library, the superb col- 
lection of art books, selected with special 
reference to the requirements of artists and 
handicraftsmen, is always open to designers. 
There is a large endowment fund for the sup- 

2J6 A Book of Precious Stones 

port of the art book department, which is tmovo 
as " tlie Greene fouDdation." 

The productions of designers and workers in 
jewelry seen in the annual exhibitions now held 
by the Kational Arts Club, in collaboration 
with the National Society of Craftsmen, !n the 
galleries of the club at 119 East Nineteenth 
Street, New York City, prove the good work 
that is t>eiug done by individuals and members 
of various schools and classes; these inclnde the 
jewelry class of the New York Evening School, 
and the jewelry class of Miss Grace Qazen of 
Gloucester, Mass. 

At Newark, N. J., an industrial city which 
iucludes among its industries considerable jew- 
elry manufacturing, there is the Newark Techni- 
cal Si'hool, supported by appropriations from 
botii the city of Newark aud the State of New 
Jersey, which has a valuable course for workera 
in jewelry. 

In Boston there is continuous encoaragemeot 
to designers of art jewelry in the work and 
influence of the Society of Arts and Crafts, 
Boston, incorporated in 1897, and which holds 
exhibitions semi-annually. A recent exhibition 
of this society included a valuable and most 
interesting display of American jewelry, U« , 


, «9T0!i. '-■™°«,.. I 

Arts and Crafts Movement 277 


^■efttare of wbicli was a large collection of ex- 
qnisitely designecl, excellently drawn, and well 
executed pieces from the Copley Square Studio 
of Frank Gardner Hale, the exhibit occupying 
one end of the exhibition gallery. Mr. Hale's 
prodacts are not only definite in design, but 
the construction of his mountings of gems is 
practical and would satisfy the mechanical re- 
ciuirements of manufacturers of jewelry com- 
mercial, which a good deal of the work of 
exponents of arts and crafts jewelry would not. 
New Yorkers at home have had an opportunity 
to see some of Mr. Hale's remarkable work at 
an exhibition at the Clausen Galleries. Among 
the designs exhibited, chains, necklaces, pen- 
dants, and brooches predominated; there were 
numerous crucifixes in silver, some of them con- 
taining precious and semi-precious stones. In 
the number and excellence of these crucifixes, 
Mountford Hill Smith took the lead among the 
exhibitors. Marblehead's handicraft shop was 
represented by the work of H. Gustave Rogers. 
Commendable work was shown by Jane Carson 
and Theodora Walcott Notable exhibits were 
those of Laura H. Martin, Elizabeth E. Cope- 
land, and Martha Rogers. Ingenious schemes 
of colour in small enamels were shown by Mabel 

irom me 

278 A Book of Precious Stones 

W. Lather. William D. Denton of M'clleele] 
exhibited " butterfly jewelry " in which the 
wings of the butterflies are protected by rotk 
crystals set in gold mounting. Florence A. 
Richmond and Jessie Lane Burbaiik from the 
workshop in Park Square exhibited pit 
serving honourable mention. 

The officers of this society are: Pi 
H. Langford Warren; Vice-Presidents, 
Longfellow, J. Samuel Hodge, and C. Howard 
Walker; the Secretary and Treasurer is Mr. 
Frederic Allen Whiting of No. 9 Park Street, 

In Providence, B. L, a centre of the great 
jewelry manufacturing interests of New Eng- 
land, there are various opportunities for the 
aspirant for technical proficiency in the design- 
ing and making of jewelry; there is a jewelry 
class in the Young Men's Christian Association, 
a course in the regular curriculum of the pnblk 
Manual Training or Technical High School, and 
an important department of the Rhode Island 
School of Design is that devoted to jewelry de- 
signing, si Iversmi thing, and shop work. For many 
years the New England Manufacturing Jewellers 
and Silversmiths' Association has annually of- 
fered a sum of money, to be divided into several 


Arts and Crafts Movement 279 

rizes, to stimulate etadents at this school of 
"deaigD to systematically study the designing of 
jewelry and silverware. 

The Bradley Polytechnic Institute of Peoria, 
III., is an institution important in its relation 
to the present subject, having a jewelry course 
that has attained and deserves a wide reputa- 
tion; the course extends over a period of from 
three to five months' duration. The instruction 
includes the making and finishing of oval and 
flat gold band rings, modelling for casting, 
signets, designing and production of jewelry, 
and all such repairing as is called for in ordinary 
jewelry store practice. 

At Indianapolis, an indefatigable pioneer in 
the instruction of ambitious artisans in the pre- 
cious metals is Mr. Charles B. Dyer, who has 
inaugurated a local representation of the arts 
and crafts movement with a school and a shop 
in which the hand-made jewelry of the students 
and graduates of the school is sold. About forty 
students were enrolled in the class of 1908. At 
a semi-annual exhibition of the students' hand- 
■brought products about three hundred pieces 
Vvere exhibited, including bronze and copper 
work; the items in the exhibition were inspected 
with lively interest by several liundred visitors, 

28o A Book of Precious Stones 

whose commendatiODB were enthusiastic and 
freely bestowed. 

Id respoiiBe to a request, Mr. Dyer supplied 
an interesting account of the beginning and 
progress of this Middle West school, that is 
Buccessfutly uplifting ideals and enabling the 
ambitious and earnest young worker to design 
and make jewelry that come up to an artistic 
standard, as follows: 

Three years ago there was formed in Indianapolie 
a " Society of Arts and Crafts " with a very pro- 
mising Eiembership. A house was rented and tvr- 
nished and Balesrooms opened. The movement grew 
and a large number of the right kind of people 
became interested. Unfortunately, however, there 
were so very few of the members who were erflfte- 
men or in any way producers of Ratable stuflf that 
everything had to be gotten on consignment from 
outside. Like so many other associations that have 
tried the commission plan, and through mismanage- 
ment, the society did not live long. 

During its life, however, it had started a number 
of earnest people to thinking and had given them 
the desire not only to raise their standards o( 
beauty in both useful and decorative objects, but 
to esprCRB their own thought and individuality. My 
father and I bad taken great interest in the move- 
ment and had made a number of pieces of jewelry 
for the salesroom. When we were asked to start 
a class, teach the use of tools, and show bow origi- 

Arts and Crafts Movement 281 

Hal deeigns conld be executed in metal, we were 
glad to QDdertake the work. We started with a 
class of five, all of whom were art teachers in the 
bigb schools here. I might say in passing we had 
over seventy-five applicants this fall. 

As we conduct a manufacturing jewelry business, 
our shop is well equipped for all kinds of metal 
work. We have a bench for each worker where all 
the small tools, hammers, wax blocks, and punches 
are kept and also several large vises and anvils for 
the large copper work. Polishers, rolls, annealing 
furnace, enamelling furnace, and all kinds of other 
tools make the shop complete enough for any work. 

As the class is only a sort of pastime for na we 
have it at night and charge almost nothing for 

The worker first designs the piece and selects the 
stones and material to be used. After the design 
has been criticised it is transferred to metal and 
executed. We have no class problems or lectures. 
All the pieces and all the criticism are individual. 
In that way we do not allow any worker to leave 
a piece until it is well executed. 

Most of the workers are so interested in the work 
that they have their own workshops and tools at 
borne, and a number of them have not only pro- 
duced some very creditable pieces but have made 
good money in doing it. 

At the end of each term, that is just before 
Christmas and in June, we have an exhibit and 
■ale of the class work. 

We send out copper plate invitations and make 

social affair of it and sncceed in selling most 
everything produced during the term. We have ere- 

982 A Book of Precious Stones 

ated a wide interest id the movement and are macli 
enconraged to carry it along. 

From many sonrces students are now receiv- 
ing aid, eQcouragement, and information wliicli 
but a few years ago was unheard of in America. 
A case in point ia the offering annually by 
Herpers Bros., a business concern extensively 
engaged in tbe manufacture of parts of com- 
mercial jewelry, in New York City and New- 
ark, N. J., of gold medals to the most proSciest 
students in Ave leading technical schools id the 
United States. 

At tbe suggestion of Hon, Oscar StraiiB, 
Secretary of the Department of Commerce and 
Labour, it is said : Prof. John Monaghan, for 
a loii^ time a repre-sentative of the United States 
Government, io the consular service, has de- 
livered series of lectures for jewellers' associa- 
tions and at technical institutions which have 
jewelry classes or courses. While codsuI at 
Chemnitz, Germany, Trof. Monaghan devoted 
much time to a study of the technical schoola of 
the German Empire. 

In the opinion of Mr. Gutzon Borglum, as 
lately expressed in The Craftsman, the art school 
of to-day will pass and be supplanted by the 

Arts and Crafts Movement 283 

school of crafts, with the predicted result that 
there would be immediate improvement in our 
wares, furniture, textiles, interior decorations, 
and ornaments of every kind, and that, instead of 
the host of unsuccessful artists of to-day, there 
would be successful master craftsmen, putting 
life and beauty into our liberal arts, invaluable 
citizens, and, incidentally, that these graduates 
of the schools of crafts would be economically 
independent and contented. Mr. Borglum points 
out that the Metropolitan Museum of Art with 
its collections would form a nucleus and a 
foundation for this useful innovation. 

I . 

: \ 

I ■* 

4 • 




^^r {According to Wirt Ttusin) ■ 

Achirite, see Dioptase. 

Andradite, see Garnet. 

Achroite, see Tourina- 




ActiDoIite, see Cat's-eye. 

Aphrizite, see Tourma- 

Adamantine spar, see 




Adnlaria, see Orthoclase. 

Asteria, see Corundum. 

Agate, see Quartz. 

Asteria, see Quartz. 

A g a t i z e d wood, see 

Aquamarine, see Beryl. 


Aragonite, see Carbon- 

Alabaster, see Gypsnm. 

ate of Lime. 

Alaska diamond, see 

Arfcansite, see Brookite. 


Automolite, see Spinel. 

Alexandrite, see Cliryso- 

Aventurine, see Oligo- 




Aventurine, see r t h o 

Almandite, see Garnet. 


Amazonstone, see Micro- 

Aventurine, see Quartz. ' 



' Amber. 


Amethyst, gee Quartz. 

Balas mby, see Spinel. 

Amethyet (Oriental), see 

Banded agate, see 



Anatase, see Octabedrite. 

Barite. ■ 

Ancona ruby, see Quartz. 

Basanite, src Quartz. J 

, AndalQBite. 

Beekite, see Quartz. M 

^ i 

^ ^286 Appendix 1 

^^B Benitoite. 

Chlorastrolite, see Preh- 



^^M Beryllonite. 

Chloromelanite, see Jade. 

^H Bloodatonc, see Quarts. 

Chlorophane, see Fluo- 

^H Bone Turquoise, see 


^H Odontolite. 

ChloroBpinel, see Spinel. 

^^M Bort, see Diamond. 

Chondroite. .^^^ 

^H Bottle stone, see Obsid- 

Chromic ^^^H 


Chrysoberjl. ^^^| 

^H Bowenite, see Serpen- 

Chrysocolla. ^^^H 


Chrysolite, see Olivfne. 

^H Brazilian diamond, see 

Chrysolite (Orientall, 

^V Qnartz. 

see Chryaoberyl. 

^H Brazilian emerald, see 

Chrysoprase, «ee Quartt 

^H Tourmaline. 

Cinnamon etone, see Ga^ 

^H Brazilian pebble, see 

°^*- «- 

^M Quartz. 

Citrine quart^^H 

^M Bronzite. 

Quartz. ^^^| 

^m Brookite. 


^H Cacholong, see Opal. 


^H Cairngorm, see Quartz. 

Cobrastone, see Flnorile. 

^H Calcite, see Carbonate of 

Colophonite, see Garnet. 

■ Lime. 

Congo emerald, sec Diop- 

^H Callainite, see Turquoise. 


^B Cancrinite. 

Coral, see Carbonate of 

^^1 Carbonado, see Diamond. 


^H Carbuncle, see Garnet. 

Cornelian, see Quartz. 

^H Carnelian, see Quartz. 


^^M Caseiterite. 


^1 Cattinite. 

Cymophane, see Chrmo- 

^H Cejionite, see Spinel. 


^H Chalcedony, see Quartz. 

Cyprine, see Vesoriauite- 

^H Chiastolite, see Andalu- 




^^^M ^ 



^^^^^^ Appendix 287 


TDemantoid, see Gar- 

FUche d'amour, see 









Fossil coral, see Carbon- 


nichroite, see lolite. 

ate of lime. 



Fossil coral, see Quartz. 



Fossil TurqnoiBe, see 


Disthene, ace Kjanite. 




Fowlerite, see Rhodonite, 


Dyslnile, aee Spinel. 



Egyptian jasper, see 

Gahnite, see Spinel. 





Emerald, see Beryl. 

Girasol, see Cornndum. 


Emerald, (Brazilian), ace 




Gold quartz, see Gold. 


Emerald (Congo), see 




Graphic granite, see Peg- . 


Emerald (Evening), see 




Grenat syriam, see Gar- 


Emerald (Oriental), see 




Grossularite, see Garnet, 


Emerald (Uralian), see 

Guarnaccino, see Garnet. 






Harlequin opal, see Opal. 



Heliotrope, see Quartz. 


EHBouite, see Garnet. 

Heiolite, see Oligoclase. 





Eye agate, see Quartz. 

Bercynite, see Spinel. 


Eye-etone, «ee Quartz. 

Hiddenite, see Spodo- 


Fairy stone, see Stauro- 






^pre opal, see Opal. 

Hornstone, see Quartz. 


^Dlih-eye stone, see Apo- 

Hyafiuth, see Garnet. 



Hyacinth, see Zircon. 


^H 388 Appendix 1 

^H Hyaline, tee Quartz. 

Lintonite, see Thomson- 

^H Hyalite, see Opal. 


^H Hyalosiderite, see O I i- 

Lithia emerald, see Bpo- 



^H Hydrophane, see Opal. 

Lithoxyle, see Opal- 

^H Byperettiene. 

Lodeetone, see Magnet- 

^H Iceland agate, see Obsid- 



Lydian stone, see Quarli. 

^H Ichthyophthalmite, see 

Made, see Andalnsite. 

^H Apopbyllite. 


^H Idocrase, see YeaaviaD- 



Marble, see Carbonate of 

^H Ilroenite; 


^H Indicolite, see Tonrma- 

Marcasite, see Pyrite. 


Marekaaite, see b 8 i d- 



^H Iris, see Quartz. 

Melanite, see Garnet 

^H Isopyre. 

Micro! ite. 

^H Jacinth, see Zircon. 

Milky quartz, see Qnartt. 


Mocha stone, see Quarts. 

^H Jargon, see Zircon. 

Moldavite, see Obsidian. 

^H Jargoon, see Zircon. 


^H Jasper, see Qoartz. 

Mont Blanc raby. «ee 

^M Jet, see Coal. 


^H Job's tears, see Olivine. 

Moonstone, see Oligo- 

^H Knnzite, see Spodnmene. 


^H Eyanite. 

Moonstone, see Opt ho- 

^H Labradorite, 


^H Lapis-lazuli. 

Morion, see Qnartz. 

^H Lechosoe opal, see Opal. 

Moss agate, see Quartz. 

^M Leelite, see Orthoclaoe. 

Moss opal, see Opal. 

^H Leopardite, see Por- 

Mountain mahogany, see 

^B pbyry. 


^r Lepidolite. 

Muller's glass, see Qpit. | 

^^^^^^^^^^^^1 ^^^1 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^1 ^^^^^1 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^l^^^^^^^^^^^l ^^^^^^1 

Appendix 389 ^^H 


Prase, see Qtiartz. ^^H 

Nephrite, see Jade. 

Prebuite. ^^| 

Nicolo, see Quartz. 

Pseudonephrite, see ^^H 

Nigrine, see Rutile. 



Pyrite. ^^H 


Pyrope, see Oaniet. ^^H 


Quartz. ^^H 


Rhodolite, see Garnet. ^^H 


Rhodonite. ^^| 

Onyx, aee Carbonate of 

Ribband jasper, see ^^H 


Qnartz. ^^| 

Onjx, see Qnartz. 

Rocit crystal, see Quartz. ^^H 

Oolite, fiee Carbonate of 

Romanzovite, see Garnet. ^^H 


Rose quartz, see Quartz. ^^H 


Rubasse, see Quartz. ^^H 

Opalised wood, see Opal. 

Rubellite, see Tourma- ^^H 

OrthocIaBe. Onaohita 


etone, see Qnartz, 

Rubicelle, see Spinel. ^^H 

Ouvarovite, see Garnet. 

Rubiuo-di-rocea, see Gar- ^^^| 

Peari, aee Carbonate of 



Ruby, see Corundum. ^^^| 

Pearlyte, aee Obsidian. 

Rutile. ^^H 


Sapphire, see Qnartz. 

Peridot, «ee Olivine. 

Bt. Stephen's stone, see 

Peristerite, «ee Albite. 


Perthite, see Orthoclase. 


Phantom qnartz, see 

Saphir d'eau, see Idolite. 


Sapphire, see Corundum. 


Sapphire, see Quartz. 

Pipestone, see Catlinite. 

Sard, see Quartz. 

Pisolite, «ee Calcite. 

Sardonyx, see Quartz. 

Plasma, see Quartz. 

Satin spar, see Carbon- 

I'leouast, see Spinel. 

ate of lime. 


Satin spar, see Gypsum. 



290 Appendix 


^aussurite, see Jade. 

Thetis'-liair stone, see 


Saxon topaz, sec Quartz. 




Thomson ite. 


Schorl, see Tourmaline. 

Thulite, see Epidote. 


Scotch topaz, see Quartz. 

Tiger-eye, see Crocido- 





Siderite, «ee Quartz. 



Silicifled wood, see Opal. 

Toad'H-eye stone, see 


Silicifled wood, see 







Topaz (false), see 


Smoky quartz, see 



Topaz (Oriental), see 



Spanish topaz, see TopBK. 

Topaz ( Saion ), see 

Spessartite, see a r- 



Topaz (Scotch), «ep 

Bphaeralite, see Obsid- 



Topaz (smoky ), see 

Sphene, see Titanite. 



Topaz (Spanish), see 



Stalagmite, fee Carbon- 

Topazolite, see Garnet. ; 

ate of lime. 

Touchstone, see Quartz. 

Star quartz, see Quartz. 

Tourmaline. ; 

Star ruby, sceCorun- 

TurkiR, sec Turquoise. ' 


Turquoise. , 

Star sapphire, see Corun- 

Turquoise (bone), see 




Turquoise (fossil), tee 

Succinite, see Amber. 


Sunstone, see OligocIaBe. 

tJralian emerald, tee 

Sunstone, see Orthoclase. 


Tabasheer, see Opal. 

Utahite, see YariiH^^^ 





Variolitey see Ortho- 


Venns'-hair stone see 

Verde antique, see Ser- 


Volcanio glass, see Ob- 

Vulpinite, see Anhydrite. 

Water sapphire, see lo- 

Wemerite, see Soapo- 

Wilsonite, see Soapo- 

Wiluite, see Garnet 
Wolf 8-eye stone, see 

Wood tin, see Cassite- 

Zonochlorite, see Preh- 




Among the more important gems that display 
twin colours are these listed by A. H. Church in 
Precious Stones as follows: 


OF Stonh. 

Twin Colours. 










1 (red), 










Green ish-yelloi 

















Aquamarine (sea-green), 







Chrysoberyl (yellow), 










(Progressing from soft to hard.) 


























L 1 


^H {From hard to soft.) 

^H Diamond 




^m Coruiidnm(Rub} 



H and Sapphire) 




H ChryBober;! 




H Topas 


Feldspar (Ama- 


H Bpinel (Balas 



■ Ruby) 



'• ^M 

H Pbenacite 




H Beryl (Emerald, 



V Aquamarine) 




ZircoD (Hya- 































Quartz {A m e- 



thyst, Jasper, 



Rock Crystal) 















(Agate and 

Gypsum (Ala- 



baster and 




Satin Spar) 








:— . 



H (Decreasing from high to low.) 

Zircon (Hya 






















Cape Ruby 


3.29 ^_ 




3.17-3.19 ^H 



3.11^.22 ^H 




3.16-3.20 ^H 



Oreen and Blue ^^| 

Pyrope (Gar- 


3.11-3.16 ^H 




3.06 ^ 












Stone (Gar- 

Bed and 




Spinel (Balaa 









Labrador! te 












agS Specific Gravity of Gem Minerals ' 

Kock Crystal 



Smoky Quartz 













lolite 2.60-2.65 



Chalcedony ^ g^ 






The refractiTe indices of the more important pre- 
cioiiB and Bemi-precions stones are given in the 
following table, the valnes for singly refracting 
stones l>eing indicated by n, and the greatest and 
least values for doubly refracting stones by n y and 
n z, respectively. In both cases the values apply to 
the middle rays of the spectrum. The strength of 
the double refraction of each stone is indicated by 
d-ii y — n z, that is, by the difference between the 
greatest and the least refractive indices of the 





















Ruby ) 

Sapphire ^ 








n g 




























Completely transparent 

Slightly transparent 




Essonite (Oamet) 



Strongly transparent 

Almost opaque 












Almandite ( Garnet) 














The veight of a carat is rated differently in vari- 
localities where the diamond indastry is im- 

rtant. On an average, the carat does not differ 
in value mncb from the fifth of a gram of the 
metric system (200 milligrams), or atmot three and 
one sixth English grains. 

The fractions of the oarat ased in weighing pre- 
cious stones are H, Yi, ^/^, and so on down to one 
siity-fourth ; this fraction of a carat of 205 milli- 
grams is equal to 3.203 milligrams. The fourth 
part of a carat is Icnown as a grain; not a Troy 
weight grain, however, but a " pearl grain " ; al- 
tbon^ this is rarely used as a nnit. In France 
144 carats equal one onnce. Efforts are continn- 
ally being made to reconcile these variations of 
weight in the use of the term "carat," and also to 
substitute the gram of the metric system for the 
carst, and it is hoped that eventually the weighing 
of precious stones may be universally standardised. 

302 Carat's Weight in Various Local! 

The esaot values in milligrams of the car at It , 
different places are tabulated as follows: 







New York 






















Fran kfurt-am -Main 










An International Committee of Weights and 
Measures has finally adopted the recontDiendations 
of the Tarions associatioiis of jewellers and dia- 
mond merchants, and has oflicially sanctioned a 
fixed uniform weight value of 200 milHgrama for 
the carat. 

The carat, as a weight {it shonid be remembered 
that the word Karat is also uaed in the jewelry 
trade to denote the fineness of gold), is need for 
weighing the precious stones. The weights of mhos 

Carat's Weight in Various Localities 303 

semi-preciouB stones in the trade are reckoned in 
pennyweiglils. Pearls are weighed and their valuea 
calculated by the grain (Vi carat). Diamonds are 
designated in the trade as "grainers," "two grain- 
ers," etc. ; a " four grainer " is a diamond weighing 
one carat. The practice in the United States has 
been to calculate the carat at 205 milligrams or 
S.210 grains Tray. The new metric carat, which 
will probably eventutillj become the universally 
i-ecognised standard, will weigh 200 milligramB or 
S.130 grains. 



1. The Cubic System with 9 planes of symmetry 

2. The Hexagonal System " 7 " " 
X The Tetragonal System " 5 " " 
i. The Rhombic System " 3 " " 
5. The itonoclinic System " 3 " " 

5, The Monoclinic System " i « « 

6. The Triclinio System " " " 



'4,Suli8tantially as published hy Wirt Ta$ain and 
other authorities) 

By those in January bom 

No gem save garnet should be wore; 


Birth Stones 

Should wear topaz of amber hue. 
Emblem of friends and lovers true. 


If cold December gave you birth, 
The month of snow and ice and mirth^ 
Place on your hand a turquoise blui 
Success will bless whate'er you do. 



SiNCB one book cannot posBibly comprehend all 
the phases of a large subject, it may be of service 
to Bome of oar readers to supply a full bibliography, 
like that which follows, a bibliography that will 
enable them easily to acquire information on special 
phases, or advance to a liberal education on the 
entire subject. It should be said, however, that an 
absorption and assimilation of all that was ever 
printed about gems, even with the aid of illustra- 
tions — line, half-tone, and colour-work of the most 
advanced stage of reproductive pictorial art — can- 
not thoroughly inform the student without close 
study of the gem stones and cut gems themselves. 

The most comprehensive book about gems ever 
written is undoubtedly Precious Stones by Dr. Max 
Bauer. The oHgiual of this monumental work was 
first published in parts under the title EdcJstcin- 
kunde in 1895 and 1896, in Germany, but was sub- 
sequently translated into English by L. J. Spencer, 
of the mineral department of the British Museum, 
find published in 1004 in London, and a little later 
in this country. With interest, pride, and pleasure 
Americans may read the initial sentence of Dr. 



Bauer's introduction to Iiis book, as follows: "The 
desire of tlie piiblishers to present to the GermBn 
piiblic a work on precinas stones, similar in char- 
acter to that admirably supplied in American 
literature hy George Frederic Kuqz'b Gems and 
Precious Stones of North America, gave the initia' 
tive to the writing of the present book." That the 
foremost expert on American gems should he an 
American, designated as its official authority hy 
the United States Government, and accepted as such 
abroad, and that this American should possess the 
literary ability to disseminate the knowledge he 
has gathered in a popular as well as strictly scien- 
tific fashion, and sliould have directly caused the 
production of the most authoritative book on tlie 
gem subject, may be a source of satisfaction to 
his compatriots who are patriotic in all things U 
well as admirers of gems. 

The basis of much of the informatioD extant 
sbout gems is the old, but reliable and still stand- 
ard, A System of Mineralogn. by James Dwight 
Dana, published in 1837, in New Haven, Conn. 
This textbook, supplemented with Bauer's great 
book, and with the additiou of Kunz's Oemt ani 
Precious Stones of North Anieriea to cover the 
phase of the general subject involving AoieriraD 
gems, contains all important facts about gems and 
gem minerals, exclusive of recent mineralogical and 
other pertinent scientific discoveries. A valoBhle 
associate to this trio would be the Desoriptite 
Vataloffue of the Collections of Gems in the VniUi 
States National Museunu by Wirt Tassin, Aseiaiaot 
Curator of the Division of Mineralogy, This w« 
reprinted by the Government Printing 01 

Bibliography 309 

Washington, in 1902, from The Report of the United 
Blatcs National Muneutn for 1900. This report is 
out of print a8 a separate publication, but would 
be available through the acquisition of the annual 
report named, or Bbould be obtainable in any 
extensive public library. 

The following bibliography combines two Hats of 
works on the subject in hand compiled respectively 
by Mr. A. P. GrilRn, Chief Bibliographer of the 
Division of Bibliography, Library of Congress, and 
Mr. Wirt Tasain, to both of whom the author 
gratefully aclcnowledges his indebtedness. 


Abdalaziz (Ahmed Ben). Treatise on jewels. 

Abe:n Ezra (Rabbi). Commentarium in Deealoffum, 
Basel (Basle), 1527. 

Abich (H.). De Spinello. Berolini (Berlin), 1831. 

Adlek (C, and Casanowicz). Predoua etone» of the 
Bible. [In Biblical AntiquiticB, Report, U. S. Na- 
tional Museum, 1896, p. 943.] 

Acobtini (L.). Gemmm et eculpiurx antique. Frane- 
querw (Franecker), 1699. 

AQRICOLA (G.). De orttt et eauais aubterraneorum de na- 
tiira corum qvje effiuunt ex Terra. Basel (Basle), 

Aqrifpa (H. C). PhiloBophie occults. [Translated by 
Levasseur.] La Haye (The Hague), 1655. Contains 
material relating to the mystical properties of gems. 

Alahus ab Insulis (Alain de Lisle). Dieta alant, etc. 
Lug^duni-Batavorum (Leyden), 1599. An alchemical 
treatise containing material relating to the mystical 
properties of gems. A lamus ab Insulis, b. 1114, d. 
1202, was the earliest Flemish alchemist. 

Ai^BRTUS Magnus. Die mineraltbug. [In his opera, v. 
ii.] LuKduni (Leyden), 16S1. 

31 o Bibliography 

Albbitus (Cont.). De Vertulibus herbarum., lapidum 
animaltim, etc. Various editions. 

. Lea admirable secrete d' Albert le grand, efc Lyon, 

1768. Contains extracts from the works of Albertus 
Magnus, relating to the inag:ical and medicinal prop- 
erties of gems. 

AlCOT (T.). Gema, talismans, and guardians. New 
York, 1886. 

AnoRADA (M. d'). An account of tke diamonds o/ Bnttil. 
[In Nicholson's Journal, i., 1797, 24.] 

Antidotario de Fra D. d'G. Napoli (Naples), 1639. A 
treatise on pharmacy, containing a few accounts of 
the virtues of gems. 

Argenville. Traite de VOryctologie. Paris, 1740, 

Argenviu.e:(A. J. D. d'). De CHiBtoire NaturetU ietairelt 
dans deux de see parties principalis: la Lithalogie et 
la Conchologie. Paris, 1742. 

Aristotle. His works, especially the Meteorology and 
Wonderful things Heard of. Aristotle was bom about 
S84 B.C., and died about 322 B.C. 

. Lapidariua. [De novo Grreeo translatas, Locas 

Brandis.] Regia Mersbourg (Meraeburg), 1473. 

Arkaldus OE Villanova. Chymische Bchriften, etc. [Trans- 
lated by Johannem Hlppdamuaa.] Wien (Vienna), 
1742. See also: HermetiEcher Rosenkranz, Pretlosa 
Margarita, Manget, Theatrum Chemicura, etc. The 
several writings of this alchemist (also called Villano- 
vanu^, Arnald Bachuone, A. de Villeneuve, 
Am aid us Novicomensis) contain much concerning 
the occult, medicinal, and other properties of gems. 

Arnobio (Cleandre). De Teaoro delle Gioie, trattato 
maravlglioso. Venit. (Venice), 1602. 

Athanabus. Deipkrioaophistm [Banquet des Philoaophttl, 
translated by Dalechamp. Paris, 1873, 

Aubrey (J.). Miscellanies. London, 1857. Contains an 
account of the use of the beryl in divination. 

AvicENNA (Abou-Au-Aluussein-Ben-Aolouuui). Co- 
nonnaa Medicine [Lat. reddit.] Ven. (Venice). 
1843. Contains material relating to the medicinal 
and magical virtues of gems. 

Bibliography 3" 

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— . Hiatoire de ta gravure sur gemmea en France de- 
pvit lea origine» jvtqv.' d I'epoque eontemporaine; 
ottvrage illUBtri de gravurea dane le tezte et oeeom- 
pagni d» XXlf planches en phototypie. Paris; Soci£U 
de propagation des livres d'art, 1902. [iii]-xx., 262 
pp. (2). Illustrations. XXII plates, i'^. 

Babincton (ChaSLGs). a ayatematie arrangement of 
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Becher (Johann Joachim). Pkyaica Subterranta. Lip- 
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Berquen (Robert de). Lee Merveillei den tndea Orien- 
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Bordeaux (A.). Lea mines de I'Afrique du Sud. Paris, 

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iClCOLAR. Nee<Ile-1ike. 

HANTiNE. Very hard — as hard as ateel. From 

Adamas (Greek); Adamanta (Latin), the lustn of 

the diamond. 
!»ATES. Clusters or (n^ups. 
"alluvial. Washing away rocks, soil, or other mineral 

material from one place and depositing the tiibrit in 

Amorphous. Without form, shapeless. 
Amulet. From hamalet (Arabian), to carry. A charm, 

or talisman, worn on the person to ward off disease, 

accident, or other harm. 
Arborescent. Resembling a tree in appearance. 
ASTQiLATED. Radiated, with rays diverging from a centre, 

as in a star — as exhibited by an asteriated or star 

AVICULIDAE. Wing-shells, or Pearl Oysters. 

Axis. Axes or planes of crystals or other minerals — as 
demonstrated in crystallography. 

Baby. Trough or cradle in which gravel was washed for 
diamonds by early South African diamond-seekers. 

Bahias. Diamonds from the Bahia district, Brazil. 

Base. " Foundation price of a one-grain pearl from 
which to reckon prices of pearls of other weights. 
The price of pearls is quoted by the grain and reck- 
oned by the square; example: a two-grain pearl at 
three dollars base would be twice three dollars, or 
six dollars per grain 'flat'; and two grains at six 
dollars would be twelve dollars, the cost of the pearl.'' 
(From Precious Stones by W, R. Cattelle.) 

BntEFRiNGENCE. Double refraction of light of crystal 

BiZEL. Portion of brilliant-cut diamond above the girdle. 

344 Glossary 

Blebby. Blisters or bubbles in a ciystal mineral , 

Blue GaoUND. Diamond-bearing clay of lower 1 
South African diamond mines. 

BVCE White. Highest grade of South African diamonds. 

BoBT or BoABT. Imperfectly crystallised form of i " 
mond unfit for gems and used for pointing rock 
drills, for bearings of fine machinery and other t«h- 

BoTRYOiDAL. A surface presenting a group of roanded 

Bbgccia. a not wholly formed rock of angular frag* 
ments naturally cemented by lime or some other ad- 
hesive mineral substance or "binder." 

Bhiluant. a style of diamond-cutting with fifty-six 
facets, exclusive of table and culet. 

Bbittle. a mineral, when it may be readily broken by 
a blow. 

Brittle. A stone that breaks, or parts of it separate 
into powder, when the attempt is made to cut it. 

Browns. Eighth in list of principal trade terms in grad- 
ing diamonds. 

Bruting. Polishing diamonds by rubbing one against 

Bubbles. Small hollow specks in the body of a j 

Built-up Ruby. Reconstructed ruby. 

Byon. Brownish-yellow clay in which occurs con 
rubies, sapphires, etc. 

Ground adjacent to mother rock in whidi i 

have weathered out. 

Byssus. Fibres, flaxy or silky in appearance, by which 
a mussel attaches its shell to wood or st 

By-Waters. Yellow tinted diamonds. 

Capes. Diamonds with a yellowish tinge. 

Capillary. Hair-iike. 

Carat. (Karat.) A unit of weight applied to ^n 

stones verying in different trade centres. See table | 
of weights of the carat in various localities in the 
Appendix.) The word carat is supposed to be de- | 
rived from " Kuara," the bean-like fruit of an Af- 
rican tree reputed to have been used as a standard of 



wel^t for precious stones. Karat is ueed to in- 
dicate degrees of quality in gold 

Carbon. A tetrHil {having four aides), non-metallic min- 
eral element occurring in two crystalline forma, dia- 
mond and graphite, and one amorphouE form, coal. 

Carbon Dioxide. Carbonic acid gae; a colourless gas 1524 
times as heavy as air and twenty-two times as heavy 
as hydrogen. 

Cakbon Spots. Opaque black spots in the body of a 

Carbonado. Brownish, black variety of diamond; large 
pebbles or masses of diamonds, nearly pure carbon. 
Carbonado was formerly chiefly found in great 
quantity — now decreasing — in Bahia diamond district, 
Brazil; used to point rock drills and, reduced to 
powder, for polishing diamonds. 

Carbuncle. Garnet — sometimes, ruby, spinel, or other 
red gem — cut convex or ert cabochon: there is no such 
specific mineral. 

Cat*8-Eye. a term applied to gem minerals which, when 
cut convex (en cabochon), display a band of light, 
usually across inclusions of parallel fibres of as- 
bestos; name derived from resemblance to the eye of 

Ceylon Ruby. A ruby having a pink tint. 

Chalcedony Patch eb. Milk- like semi-transparent 
patches which sometimes occur as faults in rubles. 

Change of Colours. Manifested in minerals like Labrado- 
rite, where the colours change as the stone is 

Ckatoyancy. Changeable or undulating lustre or colour, 
as displayed by a cat's-eye. 

Chifs. Cleavage of diamonds of smallest fractions of a 
carat in use. 

Clatersal. Diamond splints, which are converted into 
diamond powder by crushing. 

Clean. Free from interior flaws. 

Cleavage. Direction within a crystal along which there 
i^ minimum cohesion; diamond crystals which re- 
quire cleaving; pieces cleaved from the crystal. 



Cleavihg. Splitting a crystal in b direction in whieli il 
may most easily be done — along the grain. 

Close Goods. Pure stones, of desirable shapes; hi^est 
class of South African diamonds, as assorted at 

Clouds. Muddy or cloudy patches of any colour in a stone 
which, when brought to the surface by cutting, are 
ineradicable. " Flat, subtran spa rent blotches along 
the grain of a atone."— Catte lie. 

Colour-Play. (Play of Colours.) Priematic colours pro- 
duced by dispersion of tight. 

Colour Range. A statement of the various colours ex- 
hibited by different specimens of a mineral. 

CoMBUSTiBiLiTV. A quality possessed by the diamond 
only, among gems. 

Concentrates. Gem or mineral ore or ground reduced 
by mechanical or chemical processes to its minimum 
in bulk or weight. 

CoNCHOiDAL. Shell-like fracture of any mineral. 

Concretions. Mechanical aggregation, or chemical union 
of particles of mirti-al forming balls or irregularly 
shaped nodules in strata of different material. 

Conglomerate. Pebbles or gravel bound together na^ 
u rally by a silicious, calcareous, or argillaceous 

Corundum. Crystallised alumina — rubies, sapphire, etc 

Cradle. Trough in which, by a rocking motion, placer 
miners wash auriferous or gem gravels. 

CBYBTALLOGBAPHy. The Science which describes or de- 
lineates the form of crystals. 

Crystals. Trade term for fourth grade cut diamonds; 
colourless diamonds. 

CuLASSB. Portion of brilliant-cut diamond below the girdle. 

CULETT. (Or Collet), Bottom facet of brilliant parallel 
to the girdle. 

Curator. One to whose official care is entrusted a d^ 
partment— as of mineralogy — in a museum. 

Diamond. The mineral gem alone composed of pure ca^ 
bon; crystallises in the isometric, or cubic, system; 
combustible, it can be totally consumed, disappearing 



^^V tn carbonic acid teas, when burned between the poles 

^^ of a powerful electric battery. 

Diaphaneity. The property of tranamittirg light. 

DiCHRoiSM. A property of ail doubly refractive stones, 
of which the two images revealed by an instrument 
called dichroiscope appear in different colours. 

DiCHROSCOPE. An instrument designed to exhibit the two 
complementary colours of polarised light — the di- 
chroism of crystals. 

Dispersion. The power which decomposes a ray of com- 
mon white tight in its passage through a transparent 
medium and splits it into the various colours of which 
it is composed. 

Dodecahedron. A geometrical form in the isometric or 
cubic system applied to crystallography; a solid fig- 
ure of twelve equal sides, each a regular pentagon 
— of five equal sides and angles. 

DoLOMlTio. Pertaining to dolomite, a brittle, translucent 
mineral of various colours and a vitreous lustre. 

Eruptivb. Minerals of volcanic origin in geological 

Facet. One of the small planes which form the sides 
of a natural crystal, or of a cut diamond or other 

Fales. Stones of two, or more, differently tinted strata. 

False Colour. Effect of " False Stones." 

Fancy. A term that has been applied to semi-precious 
stones prized for other qualities than intrinsic value. 

Fault. Anything within, or on the surface of, a pre- 
cious stone which detracts from its beauty or value; 
obvious examples are inclusions of foreign bodies and 
patches of a different colour or shade from the body 
at the gem. 

Feathers. White subtransparent lines in the body of a 

Feminine Rubies of a pale tint. 

Febrous. Any mineral substance having a considerable 

portion of iron in its composition. 
FmE. Term applied to the lustre and brilliancy of gema, 

pre-eminently the diamond, and secondarily the opal. 

348 Glossary 

Fncffr Bye. (First By-water.) Diamond exhibiting a 
faint greenish tinge. 

PiHST Water. Diamonds so pure and colourlesa that they 
can scarcely be distinguished from water when im- 
mersed in it. 

Fish-Eye. A diamond cut too thin to present the max- 
imum effect of brilliancy. 

Flat End9. Thin cleavages from the faces of a diamond 

Ft>TS. Thin, flat pieces of diamond crystal. 

Flaw. A eraclt, defect, fault, fissure, or other structural 
imperfection in a gem. 

Fluorescence. The phenomenal quality exhibited by 
some gems of showing one colour in transmitted light 
and another in reflected light; fluorite, from which 
the word is derived, is a striking example. 

Flux. To melt, to fuse. As a noun, a fluid or substance 
which may be used to fuse some other material. 

Fracture. Breaking a. gem otherwise than the lines of 

Gem Colour. The moBt desirable colour for a stone. 

Gemology. a word coined to supply a specific name for 
the science of gems. 

Glassies. Octahedral diamond crystals (transparent). 

Glassy. Applied to diamonds which lack brilliancy. 

GoLCONDA. Ancient and famous group of diamond mines 
on the Kistna River, India, where were found the 
Eoh-i'noor and other world-famous diamonds. 

Got.CONDAS. Diamonds from India. 

Grain Marks. Lines on tbe facet surfaces, the resull 
of imperfect polishing. 

Grainers. Diamonds which in weight will correspond to 
fourths of a carat; a diamond weighing one half a 
carat is a two-grainer; one weighing three quarters 
is a tbree-grainer; a diamond of one carat in weight 
is a four-grainer. 

Granitic. Like, or of, granite. 

Granular. Composed of or resembling granules oi 

Harlequin. Most beautiful variety of opaL 

Glossary 349 

HEMtHEORAi,. Having only half the planea or facets 
which a symmetric crystal of the type to which it 
belongs would poaseas; a crystal wanting some of its 
planea. (The heraihedra! form in crystallography 
produces or aids the phenomena of pyroelectri- 

Hexagonal. Of the form of a hexagon; having six sides 
or angles. 

Hydrostatics. Pertaining to the principles of the equilib- 
rium of fluids. 

iNCLUaiONS. Foreign substances within the body of a 
transparent mineral. 

Indian-Cut. A style of diamond-cutting usually of In- 
dian or other Oriental origin in which the table ia 
usually double the size of the culet; such stones are 
generally recut for European or American require- 

Iridbscencg. Descriptive of prismatic colours appearing 
within a crystal. 

Isometric. The cubic system in crystallography. 

Jagers. Bluish-white diamonds of modem cut; originally 
diamonds from the Jagersfontein mine. 

JlQ. (Jigger; Pulsator.) A riddle or sieve shaken ver- 
tically in water to separate ore or gem gravel or 
ground into strata. 

Knite-Edge. The girdle of a brilliant cut to a sharp 
edge and polished. 

Knots. Conditions found in diamonds as in wood, and 
troublesome to the lapidary. 

Lapidary. One who cuts, polishes, or engraves precious 

Light Yellow. Seventh grade diamonds. 

Lumpy. Stones cut thick. 

Lustre. The optical character of a gem, dependent upon 
that portion of the light falling upon it which is 
reflected from the surface. Degrees of lustre: splen- 
dent, shining, glistening, glimmering. Rinds of 
lustre: metallic, vitreous or glassy, adamantine (the 
diamond's lustre), silky, satiny, pearly, nacreous, 
greasy, waxy, resinous. 



UaACLES. Flat trian^Iar diamond crrstab 


Macuid. Twinned crystals. 
Masculine. A term applied to rabies of an in tensely 

red hue. 
Matrix. The portion of rock in which a mineral is em- 
bedded, Gem minerals are sometimes cut together 

with a portion of the matrix and the matrix itself ia 

sometimes cut and mounted like gems. 
Melange. Diamonds of mixed sizes. 
Melee. Small diamonds. 
META1J.URGV. The art of separating metals from Qwb 

ores or from impurities; smelting, reducing, refining^ 

amalgamating, alloying, parting, brazing, plating, 

Hineralogv. a science treating of those natanl iih 

organic products of the earth which possess dclJMte 

physical and chemical characters. 
MoNOCUNlc, Inclining in one direction. 
MoNOCLimc System. Having two of the axial interaeC' 

tions rectangular and one oblique; hanng the lateral 

axes at right angles to one ano^er, one of then b^ 

ing oblique to the vertical axis and the other at ri^ 

angles to it. 
Mossy. Term applied to emeralds clouded by fiMOics. 
Mt/ODY. Imperfect crystallisation which ofaeCrocts tht 

passage of tight; exemplified by mad stirred in water. 
HtJPPLC An oven-shaped vessel of baked fite-ela; con* 

taining cupels or cups in which alloy is ftued. or • 

furnace with a chamber sortoanded by Jacanifcewnt 

MymjDAE. A family of conchiferons moQuca — pawi 

producing mussela. 
MYTHil'S EDinJS. The troe mnsseL 
Naats. Thin flat crystals (diamond) Dsed for "roocs" 

and, by naplittiiiK> for draw-^tlatea. 
Nacxbook. Lostre iea«tnhling motber^af-pcBri, the Hnhil 

of nolline sheUs. 
Nhst "p**™"" OUvine, wUdi kieee its ftikm tint hj 

aitifidal Uckt, showiac only its gnss. 

Glossary 351 

Noble. The higUest t;-pe of a specified kind of gem, as 
" Noble Opal." A synonym of " Precious." 

Nodules. A rounded irregular-shaped lump or mass, 
sometimes enclosing a foreign body in the centre. 

Occurrence. To be found exiating. 

Octahedron. Two four-sided pyramids united base to 

Off Colour. Having but a tint of desirable colour. 

Old Mine. Diamonds from the old Brazilian fields; old 
cut diamonds of good colour. 

Opacitv. The quality or state of being impervious to 

Opalescence. A milky or pearly reflection from the In- 
terior of a stone. 

Opalescent. Resembling or having the tints of opal; 
reflecting lustre from a single spot. 

Opaque. When no light is transmitted. 

Optic Axis. The line in a double refracting crystal in 
the direction of which no double refraction occurs. 

OnoANiC. Pertaining to the animal or vegetable kingdom. 

Oriental, a term much used in the gem trade to dis- 
tinguish stones of entirely differing chemical and 
crystallographic nature to which a common name is 
applied, as " Oriental topaz," bestowed on specimens 
of yellow corundum of gem quality. 

Original Lots. Unbroken parcels of diamonds as graded 
and assorted at the mines. 

OrthorHohbiC. (Trimetrie.) Having three unequal 
axes intereeeting at ri|»ht angles. 

Oxide. The product of the combination of oxygen with 
a metal or metalloid. 

Panning. Primitive process of washing gravel by placer 
miners in search for gems. 

Pearly. Resembling the sheen of the pearl. 

Percussion. (Shaking Table.) A form of ore-separating 
apparatus consisting of a slightly sloping table on 
which stamped ore or metalllferons sand is placed to 
be sorted by gravity. A stream of water is directed 
over the ore, and the table is subjected to coneusssion 
at intervals. 


PHOePHORESCENCB. The property possessed by substances 
of emitting tight in certain conditions. 

Pigeon Blood. A deep clear red; the gem colour of the 
most highly prized specimens of the ruby. 

Placer. A deposit of gem minerals found separately, 
sometimes as rolled pebbles, in alluvium or diluvium, 
or beds of streams. 

Play of Colours. (See colour-play.) 

pLEocHRtSM. The term applied to minerals in which & 
different shade of colour is seen in more than two 

Polarisation. In optics, a state into which the ethereal 
undulations which cause the sensation of light are 
brought under certain conditions. 

Pomegranate. Translation of the Hindu name for spinel. 

Precious. <See "Noble.") 

Primary Situation. A mineral found in the rock in 
which it was formed. 

Prism. (Geometry.) A solid having similar and 
parallel bases, its sides forming similar parallel- 
ograms. (Optics.) Any transparent medium com- 
prised between plane faces, usually inclined to each 

Prospecting. Searching for gem fields or mines. 

Pulsator. (See Jig; Jigger.) 

Pyroelectric. (Thermo-electric.) Pertaining or re- 
lating to electric currents or effects produced by 

Quality. Native values of a gem irrespective of colour 
and cut. 

Reconstructed. A term applied to an artificial gen 
composed of fused particles of a natural precious 
stone — " Reconstructed rubies " although not difficult 
to differentiate by tests, from the red corundum of 
gem quality from Nature's laboratory, attain some 
commercial success. Also called " Scientific Ruby." 

Reflection. The act of reflecting or throwing back, »s 
of rays of light. 

Refraction, Bending back. In optics, the refraction of 
a ray of light into a number of other raya forming * 




^P hollow cone. Double Refraction : In cryatals that are 
not homogeneous but have difFerent proper tiea of 
eiaatjcity, etc., in different directions, if a ray of 
light enter the crystal in some particular directions 
it is not simply refracted but divided into two rays, 

ReJECTlOMS. Diamonds not worthy of cutting. 

Reniform. Kidney-shaped. 

Resinous. The lustre of yellow reains; manifested in the 
common forms of garnets. 

Rhombs. Lozenge-shaped faces. 

RiVEKS. Diamonds found in the beds of rivers. 

RoNTGEN Rays. (See X-rays.) 

Rosette. (Rose-cut.) A form of cutting in which the 
stone's base is a single face; the general form is 
pyramidal and the several varieties each possess a 
different number of facets; a Double Rosette, also 
called " Pendeloque " is of the form of two rosettes 
joined at their bases. 

Rough. Uncut crystals. 

Round-Stones. Diamond crystals with arched facets. 

Schist. A term used for rocks consisting of mineral 
ingredients arranged ho as to impart a more or less 
laminar structure that may be broken into slabs or 
slaty fragments. 

Second Bye. Fifth grade of rough diamonds. 

Second Cafg, Third grade of South African rough dia- 

SeMITKANBPABENT. When objects are visible through a 
mineral, though the outlines are indistinct. 

SHAKP8. Thin, knife-edge pieces of diamond. 

Sums. Dark, garnet-coloured rubies usually found In 

Sight. Exhibition of rough diamonds by the London 
Syndicate to applicants for the privilege of inspecting 
and purchasing. 

Silk. White, glistening streaks in the grain of rubies. 

5;lky- a lustre suggesting silk, as exhibited by crocido- 

Silver Capes. 

Diamonds having a very slight tint ot 

354 Glossary 

Skip. A bucket employed in narrow or inclined mine 
shafts, where the hoisting device must be cozifined 
between guides. 

Smaragdus. Ancient name for emerald and other green 

S0RTEK3. The experts at the South African diamond 
mines who assort the rough diamonds. 

Sorting Tables. Tables on which rough diamonds are 

Specific Gravity, The relative weight of bulk as com- 
pared with distilled water at 60^ F. 

Spectrum. The coloured image or images produced when 
the rays from any source of light are decomposed or 
dispersed by refraction through a prism. 

Splints. Thin, pointed pieces of diamonds. 

Spread, Surface in proportion to the depth of a stone. 

Star STONEa, Sapphires, and sometimes rubies, which 
by structure and cutting are seen to be asteriated, 
exhibiting a star of six rays of tight. 

Step-Cut. (Trap-Cut.) A form of cutting employed for 
stones not deeply coloured when they are not cut as 
brilliants; a simple typical form is that of a stepped 
pyramid with the apex sliced off. 

Streak. Colour of the surface of a stone after being 
rubbed or scratched. "Streak-Powder" is the powder 
abraded from a stone. 

Striated. Term applied to minerals which exhibit lines 
traversing the plane of a. crystal; such lines bear s 
definite relation to certain forms of the mineral on 
which they occur. 

Subtranslucent. When the edges of a mineral only 
transmit light faintly. 

TablE-Stonb. The typical form thus described is a style 
of diamond -cutting derived from an octahedron by 
cutting to opposite corners to an equal amount. 

Tailings. The refuse part of washed gem ground, rock, 
or gravel which is thrown behind the tail of the 
washing apparatus and which is pat through a 
second process to recover values possibly 




Talcose. Partaking of the characters of talc. 

Tallow- Topped. A atone cut with a flattish convex eur- 

Takiff, Ten per cent, import duty imposed upon cut 
diamonds hy the United States Government. 

Tetraqonal. Pertaining to a tetragon; having four an- 
gles or sides, as a square, quadrangle, or rhomb. 

Tetragonal System. A system of crystallisation in 
which the lateral axes are equal, being the diameters 
of a square, while the vertical is either longer or 
shorter than the lateral. Called also Dimetric, Mona- 
dimetric, or Pyramidal System. 

TnTANYiTE. A hydrocarbon, causing phosphorescence and 
opalescence in some precious stones. 

Top CaysTAL3. Standard grade of diamonds. 

Torn End. A three-cornered pyramid from the point of 
a wassie. 

TRANamcBNT, Minerals so nearly opaque that objects 
are scarcely, if at all, visible through them. 

Tbanhparent. When the outlines of an object can be 
seen through a gem distinctly, 

TeiCLINIC. The system in crystallography in which the 
three crystallographic axes are unequal, and inclined 
at angles which are not right angles, so that the 
forms are oblique in every direction, and have no 
plane of symmetry. 

Twinned. Two or more distinct crystals which have 
been formed in conjunction. 

UnIajCIAL. Having one direction within the crystal, 
alo'-g which a ray of light can proceed without being 

Jnio. The river mussel; the type-genua of Unionida, 
vrith more than 400 species from all parts of the world. 

Uralian. Minerals from the Ural Mountains, Siberia. 

Vitreous. Glassy, as glassy lustre. 

Wassie. A large cleavage of a crystal split for cutting, 
as an octahedron divided into two pieces. 

Waxy. A distinctive lustre, as of the turquoise. 

Weathering. The disintegration and decay of minerals 
under the influence of the weather. 




Well. Name given to the dark eontre of a diamond eat 
too thick. 

Wbsseltons. Third grade ctit diamonds. 

X-Rays. (Rdntgen Rays.) A recently discovered form 
of radiant energy that is sent out when the cathode 
rays of a Grookes tube strike upon the opposite walls 
of the tube or upon any object in the tube; discovered 
in 1895 at Wfinburg, Germany, by Professor W. C. 
Bdntgen« By means of these rays it is possible to 
see and photograph bones, bullets, or other opaque 
objects through the fleshy parts of the body. The 
X-rays are of some value in testing mineral sub- 
stances represented as precious stones. Under X-rays 
the diamond is transparent; the glass, or ''strass," 
used to manufacture imitation diamonds is always 
opaque under this exposure. 

Yellow Ground. The upper diamond-bearing day of 
South African mines. 

^ — 1 

^^^^r INDEX i^^^^^^ 



^Abrasives. 81 

189 ^^^^^^H 

' Achates (Drillo) River, 176 

Amphibole schists, 146 ^^^^^^^^| 

Achirite, 188 

Amsterdam. 43. 47 ^^^^| 

Achroite. 161 

Amsterdam diamond mar- ^^^^| 

Actinolite, 134 

48 ^^^1 

Adamantine spar, 20, 184 

Angels, gems, 234 ^^^^| 

Adamas, 25 

Anthrax, 84 ^^H 

Adularia, 148 

Antimony, glass of, 212 ^^^H 

Afncan diamond mines, 28 

Antwerp. 43. ^^^H 

Agate, 176 

Aphrizite, 161 ^^^H 

Brazilian, 180 

Aphroseline, 148 ^^^H 

• Dendritic (Tree Stone) , 

Apostles, gems, 234 ^^^H 


Appendix, ^^^^H 

Iceland, 191 

Aquamarine, 64 ^^^^H 

Moss, 176 

Aragonite, 134 ^^^H 

Opal, 116 

Artificial rubies. 88 ^^^H 

OrienUl moss, 177 

Arts and Crafts. 264 ^^H 

Alabaster, 184 

Aschentreckers. 166 ^^^^| 

AJbite, 149 

Ash-drawers, 166 ^^^^| 

Alexandrite, 70, 132, 137 

Asterias, 93. 94 ^^^1 

Almandine, 108. 112 

Austrian Yellow Diamond, ^^^H 

Almandite. 108. 110 

244 ^^H 

Amatrice. 185 

Avanturine (avent u rine), ^^^^| 

Amazonite, 185 

150 ^^H 

Amazon stone, 185 

Azurite, 186, 190 ^^^M 

Amber, 169 


riders, 172 


Sea, 171 


Sicilian, 172 

Bacchus Stone, 96 ^^^^^^t 

fc 2 


358 Index ^^1 

Balaa ruby, 90 

Carbonate of copper, 1S6 

Beau Sancy Diamond, 210 

of lime, 74 

Benitoite, 186 

Carbuncle, 84, 109 

Beryl, 63 

.Camelian, 187 

Beryllium, 131 

Camelionyx, 180 

Biblical references to geros, 

Cat-sapphire, 93 


Cat'a-eye, 131 

Bibliography, 307 

Ceylonese. 181 

Birth-stones, 234, 303-306 

Oriental, 131 

Bishop's Sixine, 96 

— —quartz, 135 

Bizel (Bezel), 201 

Chalcedony, 173, 178 

Bloodstone, 18D 

Chalcedony Park, 188 

Bottle Stone, 191 

Chalcedonyx, 179 ^^M 

Bra^nza Diamond, 125 

Chalchihuitl, 127 ^^^1 

Brazilian emerald, 161 

Chalcinea, 144 ^^^H 

sapphire, 125 

Chatoyancy, 131 ^^H 

Breastplate of Jewish High 

Chinatowns, 146 

Priest, 329 

Chloro-melanite, 148 

Bronzite, 134 

Chlorophane, 188 

Bruting, 207 

Chondronit*, 187 

Burma's ruby mines, 86, 87 

Chromic iron, 188 

Byon, 87 

Chryeoberyl, 70. 131, 132, 

Byssolite. 134 


Byssus, 76 

Chrysoberyl, Cloudy. 183 

Chrysocolla, 71 


Chrysolite, 151, 161 

Chryaolile, Oriental, 151 

Cabochon (en cabockon) or 

Chrjsoprase, 138 

convex cut, 200, 204 

Cinnamon Stone, 113 

Cacholong, 116 

Classification of dianoodi 

Cairngorm, 187 

by buyers for the London 

Calcite, 180 

Sj-ndicate, 41, 42 

granular, 189 

by sorters in South Af- 

Callaica, Callaina, Callaia, 

rica, 39. 40 

Callaite, 127 

Classification of gems, br 

Cameo, 179 

author. 7 

Cameo-engraving, 179 

^by Bauer, 16-19 

Cape Time, the, 256 

-hy Kluge, 12-16 

Carat, defined. 301. 303 

- — -by Streeter. 10-11 

Carbonado, 23, 24 

Cobra Stone. 188 

^ — 1 

- " ^^ 

^^^" Index 359 ^^| 

Collet, 201 

Blue, 95 ^^H 

Colours of gems, 292. 293 

Discovery of diamonds ^^^H 

Congo Emerald, 168 

in South Africa. 29 ^^^| 

Copper, emerald-copper, 71 

Diamond cutter, 195 ^^^H 

. Coral, 102, 107 

Diamond Cutters' Manufac- ^^^| 

Coral Bank. Sicilian, 104 

turers' Association, 259 ^^^H 

Coral, Fossil Coral, 107 

Diamond Cutters' Trade ^^H 

Coral Industry in Italy, 104 

Union, 253 ^^M 

Corallium rubrum, 103 

Diamond-cutting, 195 ^^^H 

Cordierite, 95 

Diamond-cutting industry in ^^^H 

Corundum, 80, 82, 83, 88, 91, 

the United States. 260 ^^H 


Diamond mines of India. 26, ^^H 

Counterfeiting gema, 210 


Costliest strand of pearls, 

Diamond of Crete, 26 ^^^H 

77, 78 

Diamond-sawing machines, ^^^| 

Crocidolite, 134, 135 

208 ^^H 

Crown of a cut gem, 200 

Diamond Syndicate, the ^^^| 

Crown of the Moon {Taj- 

London, 30. 39, 41, 43 ^^H 

e-Mah) Diamond, 244 

Diamond Workers' Protec- ^^^| 

Crystallography, 196 

tive Union of America, ^^H 

systems of c r y a t a 1 

257 ^^M 

form, 393 

Dichroism, a list of leading ^^^H 

Culet, 201 

twin-coloured gems, 294 ^^^H 

Cullinan Diamond, 48-55 

DichToitc. 189 ^^^| 

Curative attributes of gems. 

Dingley tariff, 257 ^^H 


Diopside. Ig7. 189 ^^H 

Cytnophane, 131 

Dioptase. 71. 188 ^^H 

Csar of Russia's Emerald, 

205 ^^H 


Dispersion. ^^^| 

Divination by stones, 232 ^^^^| 


Dop, 206 ^^H 

machine, or meehan- ^^^^| 

Days represented by gems, 

207 ^^H 


Doublets. 215 ^^H 

De Beers diamond mines 

Dresden Green Diamond, ^^^^| 

and processes, 33, 37 

243 ^^H 

Demantoids, 113, 152 

Duke of Devonshire's Em- ^^^^| 

DenJritic Agate (Tree 

66 ^^H 

Store), 178 

Dumortierite, 134 ^^^H 

Diamond, 23 

.„,.„.., J 



^■— .- 


362 Index ^^H 

Mocha Stone, 176 

Jasp, 116 ^^H 

Mohs Table of Hardness, 

-Moss. 116 ^^H 


< . Noble. 117 ^^H 

Moldavite, 191 

' -Oriental ^^^H 

Montana Ruby. 83, 114 

— Precious. 11? ^^^H 

-Wood, 116 1 

Moss Agate, 175 

Opalescent orthoclaae-f eld- 

Moss Opal, U6 

spar. 148 

Mountain Mahogany, 191 

Opalised wood, 150 

Mount jour, 262 

Oriental gem cutters, 198 

Mount Mica. Maine. 160 

Oxide of titanium, 192 

Mijller's GlasB, 116 


Muacovite, 166 

' ■ 


210 ^^H 

Pavilion. 200 ^^H 

Natal stones, 234 

72 ^^H 

Nephrite, 143 

Peariylite, 191 ^^^M 

Nepkrua amorphug, 144 

Peridot, 161 ^^^| 

of Ceylon, 161 ^^H 

Phenacite, 191 ^^^H 

191 ^^H 

Pigeon-blood rubies, ^^^1 

Oberatein agate induetry, 

Pingag d'ogna, 123 ^^^^| 


Pinites enecinifer. I^^^^^l 

Obsidian, 100 

Pinking. 124 <^^^f 

Odontolite, 130 

Pitt (Regent) Diamond, 6S, ' 

Oligoclase, 150 


Oiivines, 113, lEl 

Plasma, 173 

Onyx, 179 

Polar Star Diamond. 243 

Camelian, 180 

Pomegranate, 89 

Chalcedony. 181 

Precious stones, classed. 9 

Mexican, 180 

Premier Mines, 39 

Opal, 116 

Premier Mines, new (Trane- 

Australian, 119, 121 

vaal), 55, 56 

Ceyloneae, 160 

— Harlequin. 116 

Pyrite. 189, 191 

Honduras, 118 

Pyro-electricity, 169 

Hungarian, 1X8 

Pyroxene, 156. 187 



^^^ Index 363 ^J 


Ruby mines of Siam, 87 ^^H 

Rutile, ^^^H 

Quarta-Aventurine, 150 


Amethystine, fiS 


Balls, 237 

Chalcedonic, 176 


Citrine, 216 

91 ^^H 

Crypto-cryataliine, 176 

Astenated, 94 ^^^H 

CryBtalliBed, 177 

Brazilian, 126 ^^^^^^H 

ObBcurely crystalllBed, 

Indigo, .^^^^^^^H 


Leuco-, 92 ^^^^^^H 

Red, 133 

Lynx, ^^^^^^^^^1 

Oriental, 91 ^^^^^^H 


Scientific, 222 ^^^H 


Star, 94 ^^^1 

FlUdescent, 169 

Water, 93, 189 ^^^1 

Radium, 158 

White. 92 ^^H 

Reconstructed r u b i e a, 88, 

Sapphire mines of Siam, ^^^| 


199 ^^H 

Reconstructed sapphire b, 

Saprolite, 111 ^^^H 


181 ^^H 

Reconstructions, 209 

Sardonyx, 181 ^^^^| 

Red dirt, 165 

Satin spar, 192 ^^^H 

Refraction, 298, 299 

Saussurite, ^^^H 

Regent (Pitt) Diamond, B8, 

Scapolite. 189 ^^^H 


Scientific rubies, 88, 218 ^^^H 

Rhodolite, 111 

— sapphires, 222 ^^H 

Rock Crystal, 133 

Schneckenstein topaz mines ^^^| 

Romanaovite, 113 

126 ^^M 

Rontgen (X-) rays. 158, 300 

Scoop Stone, 172 ^^^H 

Rubellite, 154, 161 

Sea Amber. 170 ^^H 

Rubies, 79-83 

Sea Stone. 170 ^^^M 

Cape, 88, 112, lU 

Selenite, 148 ^^^| 

False, 188 

Semi-precious stones, 188 ^^^^| 

Montana, 88, 114 

^— ^Classified, 9-10 ^^H 

Oriental, 79, 80, 81, 83 

Shaking table, 38 ^^^H 

Reconstructed, 88, 218 

44 ^^H 

^ Scientific, 88, 218 

Slaves' diamonds. 126 ^^^| 

^L^- Siberian, 88 

Soldier's Stone, 96 ^^H 

^B— value of, 86 

Sorting Ubles, 37, 88 ^^^H 


Index ^^^1 

specific gravity of gem 

Inaian, 125 ^^^| 

minerale, table, 297, 298 

Oriental. 62, 126^^^H 

Spessartite, 114 

Sphffirulite, 191 

Rose Pink, 124 ^^H 

Spkeii. 193 

Saxon, ^^^^1 

Sphene, 193 

— Scotch. 125 ^^H 

Spinel, 88 

Smoky, 125. 187 ^^H 

Pomegranate, 89 

Spanish, 126 ^^^H 

Vinegar-Spinel, 133 

- — 'True, 123 ^^H 

Spodws, 156 

Topasioa, ^^^^H 

Spodumene, 154 

Topasolite, ^^^H 

Brazilian, 157 

Tourmalines, 160 ^^^^| 

unaltered, 155 

black, 166 ^^^ 

Star of South Africa Dia- 

red. 162 1 

mond, 31, 241 

■ twin -coloured, 162 J 

Staurolite, 192 

Transparency of genu oa- M 

Stick, 206 

der Rontgen (X-> J^^H 

StraBB, 211 

300 ^^M 

Style, 181 

Tree Stone. 1TB ^^^| 

Styles of cutting, 199 

Triphane. 156 ^^^ 

Succinite, 113, 170 

Triplets, 215 1 

SiictrinKvt eUetmm, 170 

Tulp Straat. Amsterdam. 46 1 

Sulphur Stone, 191 

Turkis, 127 J 

Sunstone. 148, 150 

Turmati, 160 ^^^M 

Sun-tuming, 173 

Turquoise. ^^^^| 

Supernatural attributes of 

Matrix, 129 ^^^H 

geme, 235 

Occidental, 130 j^^H 

Twelve Masarins, the^^^^H 




Tabasheer, 116 


Table, 200 

United States tariff on im- j 

Tests of genuineness, 212 

Thermo-luminescence, 159 

Universal Diamond Worit- m 

Tiger-eye, 135 

ers- Alliance, 258 jlBfl 

Titanite. 193 

Uvarovite, 114 ^^^1 

Topaz, 122 


Blue, 125 


Brazilian, 128 


False, 125 

Valuation of gems, ^^^^H 



Variscite, 185 
Volcanic Glass, 190 


Wardite, 185 
White Acid, 213 
White Stones, 210 
Wilnite, 113 
Woof, 135 

Yu stone, 146 
Yu Yu Shih, 146 

Zircon, 193 



Study of the Factors that Govern 
their Value 


Frank B. Wade 

tl «haO ^>eak a little more (A the diamoadt, that they 
know them not may not be deceived by chafanen 
vho go through the counlry sellbg them, for whoever wiD 
>uy the diamond, it is needful that he know them, . . ." 
—Chap. XIV,, The yoyaga and Travels qf Sir John 

Table of Contents 

I. — Colour. 

II. — Flaws. 
III.-" Make." 
IV. — Repairing and Recutttng. 

V. — Mounting. 
VI. — Buying the Engagement Ring. 

G. P. Putnam's Sons 

4ew York Loodon 

The Magic and Science 
of Jewels and Stones 

By Isidore Kozminsl^ 

This book presents, in attractive litCT- 
ary form, the ideas of the eincients and 
moderns in regard to the use of precious 
gems. It explsuns, for instance, the im- 
port of the breastplate, and analyzes the 
history and the meaining of vcirious leg- 
ends, stories, and parables connected with 

It gives an interesting account of the 
use of gems as symbols, birthstones, tal- 
ismans, zmd stones of fortune. It gives 
a dramatic description of the gems that 
have been famous in history: diamonds, 
rubies, sapphires, pearls, and opals, and 
particularly of the wonderful "Flame 

A chapter is devoted to the science, 
literature, and the poetry associated with 
gems. •-'